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. The New Cambridge Medieval History: C. Cambridge University Press, 1999, 257. Tradition vs novelty: universities and scientific societies in the early modern period. ), Revolution and continuity: essays in the history and philosophy of early modern science, Studies in philosophy and the history of philosophy. C: Catholic University of America Press, pp. A reappraisal of the role of the universities in the Scientific Revolution. ), Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, pp. The universities of the Italian renaissance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p.
  • Diamond, Sigmund (1992). Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945-1955. A reappraisal of the role of the universities in the Scientific Revolution. ), Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, pp.
  • ^ Culture: Nine European historical sites now on the European Heritage Label list Archived 12 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine European Commission, 8 February 2016
  • ^ Hossein Nasr. Traditional Islam in the modern world.

    17th century classroom at the University of Salamanca

  • ^ Grendler, P.

    "The universities of the Renaissance and Reformation".

    Wikimedia Commons has media related to Universities. Colish, Medieval Foundations of the Western Intellectual Tradition, 400-1400, (New Haven: Yale Univ.

  • University at Curlie
  • ^ Pryds, Darleen (2000), " Studia as Royal Offices: Mediterranean Universities of Medieval Europe", in Courtenay, William J. ; Miethke, Jürgen; Priest, David B.

    ), Universities and Schooling in Medieval Society, Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 10, Leiden: Brill, pp.  96–98 Early Modern universities initially continued the curriculum and research of the Middle Ages: natural philosophy, logic, medicine, theology, mathematics, astronomy, astrology, law, grammar and rhetoric. Aristotle was prevalent throughout the curriculum, while medicine also depended on Galen and Arabic scholarship.

    The importance of humanism for changing this state-of-affairs cannot be underestimated. [58] Once humanist professors joined the university faculty, they began to transform the study of grammar and rhetoric through the studia humanitatis. Humanist professors focused on the ability of students to write and speak with distinction, to translate and interpret classical texts, and to live honorable lives.

    [59] Other scholars within the university were affected by the humanist approaches to learning and their linguistic expertise in relation to ancient texts, as well as the ideology that advocated the ultimate importance of those texts. [60] Professors of medicine such as Niccolò Leoniceno, Thomas Linacre and William Cop were often trained in and taught from a humanist perspective as well as translated important ancient medical texts. The critical mindset imparted by humanism was imperative for changes in universities and scholarship.

    For instance, Andreas Vesalius was educated in a humanist fashion before producing a translation of Galen, whose ideas he verified through his own dissections. In law, Andreas Alciatus infused the Corpus Juris with a humanist perspective, while Jacques Cujas humanist writings were paramount to his reputation as a jurist. Philipp Melanchthon cited the works of Erasmus as a highly influential guide for connecting theology back to original texts, which was important for the reform at Protestant universities.

    [61] Galileo Galilei, who taught at the Universities of Pisa and Padua, and Martin Luther, who taught at the University of Wittenberg (as did Melanchthon), also had humanist training. The task of the humanists was to slowly permeate the university; to increase the humanist presence in professorships and chairs, syllabi and textbooks so that published works would demonstrate the humanistic ideal of science and scholarship.

    (1888), Statuti delle Università e dei Collegi dello Studio Bolognese.

  • Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de, ed. A History of the University in Europe. Volume 1: Universities in the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.
  • ^ "Massachusetts Board of Education: Degree-granting regulations for independent institutions of higher education" (PDF).
  • ^ Makdisi, George (1970). "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages".

    Studia Islamica (32): 255–264 (264). Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe

    . Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day.

    But back in the middle ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere.

  • Segre, Michael (2015). Higher Education and the Growth of Knowledge: A Historical Outline of Aims and Tensions. Medieval discussions of the eternity of the world (Vol.

    Although the structural model provided by the University of Paris, where student members are controlled by faculty "masters", provided a standard for universities, the application of this model took at least three different forms. There were universities that had a system of faculties whose teaching addressed a very specific curriculum; this model tended to train specialists. There was a collegiate or tutorial model based on the system at University of Oxford where teaching and organization was decentralized and knowledge was more of a generalist nature.

    There were also universities that combined these models, using the collegiate model but having a centralized organization. [57]

  • ^ Joseph, S, and Najmabadi, A. Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures: Economics, education, mobility, and space. Other historians find incongruity in the proposition that the very place where the vast number of the scholars that influenced the scientific revolution received their education should also be the place that inhibits their research and the advancement of science.

    In fact, more than 80% of the European scientists between 1450–1650 included in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography were university trained, of which approximately 45% held university posts. [67] It was the case that the academic foundations remaining from the Middle Ages were stable, and they did provide for an environment that fostered considerable growth and development. There was considerable reluctance on the part of universities to relinquish the symmetry and comprehensiveness provided by the Aristotelian system, which was effective as a coherent system for understanding and interpreting the world.

    However, university professors still utilized some autonomy, at least in the sciences, to choose epistemological foundations and methods. For instance, Melanchthon and his disciples at University of Wittenberg were instrumental for integrating Copernican mathematical constructs into astronomical debate and instruction. [68] Another example was the short-lived but fairly rapid adoption of Cartesian epistemology and methodology in European universities, and the debates surrounding that adoption, which led to more mechanistic approaches to scientific problems as well as demonstrated an openness to change.

    There are many examples which belie the commonly perceived intransigence of universities. [69] Although universities may have been slow to accept new sciences and methodologies as they emerged, when they did accept new ideas it helped to convey legitimacy and respectability, and supported the scientific changes through providing a stable environment for instruction and material resources. [70]

  • ^ "Students at Public Universities, Colleges Will Bear the Burden of Reduced Funding for Higher Education". Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010.

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    "The Melanchthon circle:, rheticus, and the Wittenberg interpretation of the Copernicantheory".

  • ^ "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Examining the influence of humanism on scholars in medicine, mathematics, astronomy and physics may suggest that humanism and universities were a strong impetus for the scientific revolution
    . Although the connection between humanism and the scientific discovery may very well have begun within the confines of the university, the connection has been commonly perceived as having been severed by the changing nature of science during the Scientific Revolution. Westfall have argued that the overt traditionalism of universities inhibited attempts to re-conceptualize nature and knowledge and caused an indelible tension between universities and scientists. [65] This resistance to changes in science may have been a significant factor in driving many scientists away from the university and toward private benefactors, usually in princely courts, and associations with newly forming scientific societies. A reappraisal of the role of the universities in the Scientific Revolution. ), Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, pp. Wikiversity has learning resources about University
  • ^ Daniel, Norman (1984). "Review of "The Rise of Colleges.

    Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi "". Journal of the American Oriental Society.

    Professor Makdisi argues that there is a missing link in the development of Western scholasticism, and that Arab influences explain the "dramatically abrupt" appearance of the "sic et non" method. Many medievalists will think the case overstated, and doubt that there is much to explain. ), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010 , retrieved 27 August 2013

  • ^ Grendler, P. The universities of the Renaissance and Reformation.
  • ^ Makdisi, George (April – June 1989). "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West"
    .

    Journal of the American Oriental Society. "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law".

    Gutenberg and the Impact of Printing (English ed. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate Pub. "The History of Libraries in the Arab World: A Diffusionist Model". Libraries & the Cultural Record. (1981), Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West.

    Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)

  • ^ Goddard, Hugh (2000). A History of Christian-Muslim Relations. "The mission of the university: Medieval to Postmodern transformations".
  • ^ Pryds, Darleen (2000), " Studia as Royal Offices: Mediterranean Universities of Medieval Europe", in Courtenay, William J.

    ; Miethke, Jürgen; Priest, David B. ), Universities and Schooling in Medieval Society, Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 10, Leiden: Brill, pp.

     83–99, ISBN 978-90-04-11351-0, ISSN 0926-6070

  • ^ Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam.

  • ^ Rankings: Universität Heidelberg in International Comparison Archived 21 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine - Top Position in Germany, Leading Role in Europe (Heidelberg University)
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    The universities of the Italian renaissance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, p.

  • ^ Maggie Berg & Barbara Seeber. The Slow Professor: Challenging the Culture of Speed in the Academy, p.

    Toronto: Toronto University Press. Tradition vs novelty: universities and scientific societies in the early modern period. ), Revolution and continuity: essays in the history and philosophy of early modern science, Studies in philosophy and the history of philosophy. C: Catholic University of America Press, pp

    .

    The universities of the Renaissance and Reformation.

    ), Universities in early modern Europe, 1500-1800, A history of the university in Europe. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, p.

  • ^ Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed. ): A History of the University in Europe.

    I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp

    .  35–76 (35)
  • ^ "Deemed University".

    Archived from the original on 7 December 2015. Aristotle's children: how Christians, Muslims, and Jews rediscovered ancient wisdom and illuminated the dark ages (1st ed.

    Orlando, Florida: Harcourt, pp. ), Universities in early modern Europe, 1500-1800, A history of the university in Europe

    .

    Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, p.

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    The University as a European Institution", in: A History of the University in Europe. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp.

    XIX–XX

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    Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press. Encountering the World of Islam. ), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010 , retrieved 27 August 2013, …In the Middle Ages: a body of teachers and students engaged in giving and receiving instruction in the higher branches of study … and regarded as a scholastic guild or corporation. Compare "University", Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.

    ), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, The whole body of teachers and scholars engaged, at a particular place, in giving and receiving instruction in the higher branches of learning; such persons associated together as a society or corporate body, with definite organization and acknowledged powers and privileges (esp. That of conferring degrees), and forming an institution for the promotion of education in the higher or more important branches of learning….

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    The Language of Mineralogy: John Walker, Chemistry and the Edinburgh Medical School, 1750-1800. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015.

    Wikiquote has quotations related to: Universities Although the initial focus of the humanist scholars in the university was the discovery, exposition and insertion of ancient texts and languages into the university, and the ideas of those texts into society generally, their influence was ultimately quite progressive. The emergence of classical texts brought new ideas and led to a more creative university climate (as the notable list of scholars above attests to). A focus on knowledge coming from self, from the human, has a direct implication for new forms of scholarship and instruction, and was the foundation for what is commonly known as the humanities.

    This disposition toward knowledge manifested in not simply the translation and propagation of ancient texts, but also their adaptation and expansion. For instance, Vesalius was imperative for advocating the use of Galen, but he also invigorated this text with experimentation, disagreements and further research. [63] The propagation of these texts, especially within the universities, was greatly aided by the emergence of the printing press and the beginning of the use of the vernacular, which allowed for the printing of relatively large texts at reasonable prices.

    [64]

  • ^ Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, 2nd ed. , Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-521-52994-8, p. 133-139, 149-159, 179-189
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    " 'Deemed' status distributed freely during Arjun Singh's tenure - LearnHub News".

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  • ^ Kerr, Clark (2001). The propagation of universities was not necessarily a steady progression, as the 17th century was rife with events that adversely affected university expansion. Many wars, and especially the Thirty Years' War, disrupted the university landscape throughout Europe at different times.

    War, plague, famine, regicide, and changes in religious power and structure often adversely affected the societies that provided support for universities. Internal strife within the universities themselves, such as student brawling and absentee professors, acted to destabilize these institutions as well. Universities were also reluctant to give up older curricula, and the continued reliance on the works of Aristotle defied contemporary advancements in science and the arts.

    [55] This era was also affected by the rise of the nation-state. As universities increasingly came under state control, or formed under the auspices of the state, the faculty governance model (begun by the University of Paris) became more and more prominent. Although the older student-controlled universities still existed, they slowly started to move toward this structural organization.

    Control of universities still tended to be independent, although university leadership was increasingly appointed by the state.

    London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, page 373 The epistemological tensions between scientists and universities were also heightened by the economic realities of research during this time, as individual scientists, associations and universities were vying for limited resources. There was also competition from the formation of new colleges funded by private benefactors and designed to provide free education to the public, or established by local governments to provide a knowledge hungry populace with an alternative to traditional universities

    . [72] Even when universities supported new scientific endeavors, and the university provided foundational training and authority for the research and conclusions, they could not compete with the resources available through private benefactors.

    [73]

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    Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi "". Journal of the American Oriental Society.

    The first section, typology of institutions and the law of waqf, is crucial to the main thesis, since the college is defined in terms of the charitable trust, or endowment, as in Europe: it is admitted that the university, defined as a corporation, has no Islamic parallel.

  • ^ See; Baldwin, M (1995). "The snakestone experiments: an early modern medical debate". Universities and the Capitalist State: Corporate Liberalism and the Reconstruction of American Higher Education, 1894-1928. Madison, Wis: University of Wisconsin Press. (2003), Mythologies and Historiography of the Beginnings, pp 4-34 in H.

    De Ridder-Symoens, editor, A History of the University in Europe; Vol 1, Cambridge University Press.

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    . ; Miethke, Jürgen; Priest, David B. ), Universities and Schooling in Medieval Society, Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 10, Leiden: Brill, pp. "The mission of the university: Medieval to Postmodern transformations".
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    The heritage of European universities, Volume 548. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. The Renaissance : a short history.

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    ), The medical renaissance of the sixteenth century (1st ed. The construction of modern science: mechanisms and mechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.

  • ^ Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan (1 January 2006). The heritage of European universities, Volume 548. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Regardless of the way the tension between universities, individual scientists, and the scientific revolution itself is perceived, there was a discernible impact on the way that university education was constructed.

    Aristotelian epistemology provided a coherent framework not simply for knowledge and knowledge construction, but also for the training of scholars within the higher education setting. The creation of new scientific constructs during the scientific revolution, and the epistemological challenges that were inherent within this creation, initiated the idea of both the autonomy of science and the hierarchy of the disciplines. Instead of entering higher education to become a "general scholar" immersed in becoming proficient in the entire curriculum, there emerged a type of scholar that put science first and viewed it as a vocation in itself.

    The divergence between those focused on science and those still entrenched in the idea of a general scholar exacerbated the epistemological tensions that were already beginning to emerge. (2003), Mythologies and Historiography of the Beginnings, pp 4-34 in H.

    De Ridder-Symoens, editor, A History of the University in Europe; Vol 1, Cambridge University Press. 12

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    School Uniforms Debate Essay