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  • ^ "la scuola dei grandi" Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.

  • ^ "Students Protest as Italian Senate Passes Reforms". "In Germany, Veiled Students Stir Up Uniform Debate - Germany - DW. " Demographics may dictate uniformity.

    Gov/programs/crimeindicators/crimeindicators2011/tables/table_20_1. Asp

  • ^ "Mandatory school uniform stages comeback in Russia".

  • ^ "Wearing a bit of history".
  • ^ Picture of senior high school boys in blazers, short trousers and straw boaters.
  • ^ "Bildungschancen für Straßenkinder in Burundi". Wearing nail polish is usually not allowed.

    Adolfo Santos, a political science professor at the University of Houston–Downtown, stated that many Hispanic communities in the United States choose uniforms because many immigrants originate from countries with schools requiring uniforms.

    Public schools requiring uniforms had increased from 3% in 1996 to 25% in 2010.

  • ^ Tan Ee Loo, "Student with 'too transparent' uniform can be told to wear undergarment" Archived 2008-06-01 at the Wayback Machine, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 24 May 2008 Sylvan I
    . Alleyne, Velma LaPoint, Jennifer Lee and Harold W.

    Mitchell of The Journal of Negro Education stated that little empirical research exists regarding how effective school uniforms are in enhancing academic performance and social environments, and that little research exists regarding teachers' beliefs regarding issues related to dress codes, especially so regarding racial and ethnic minorities. [82] In the United States, literature regarding public school student clothing and behavior cites anecdotal viewpoints from teachers. The literature discussed opinions on faculty, staff, and other employees on how to deal with student dress issues.

    [83] A 2003 article of The Journal of Negro Education said that research and reports regarding the beneficial impact of school uniforms was not conclusive. Despite the federal government of the United States issuing a set of guidelines encouraging school uniforms in public schools, as of 2003 political support varied.

    Zvi Zameret, Fifty Years of Education in the State of Israel, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 14 July 1998.

  • ^ "School uniform", CBBC Newsround, retrieved on 28 August 2008.
  • Lower secondary schools or Sekolah Menengah Pertama ( SMP) require navy blue shorts or trousers with a short-sleeve white shirt for male students.

    Females wear a below-knee-length or long navy blue skirt and short-sleeve white shirt. Archived from the original on 2015-04-04. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link) Flam, Lisa.

    The rationale behind the uniform policy of Bangladesh is that the authorities want to protect the students from class stratification that can become apparent when students are given the choice to dress as they like. In addition, authorities believe that students should not misuse their time in trying to dress up for school. There is no legal requirement for school uniforms in Brazil.

    On a state-by-state or city-by-city basis, governments may issue uniforms to public school pupils but may not require their use. [5] Private schools are free to set their own uniform policy. Nowadays, many pre-schools advise parents to dress their children with a grembiulino, i. , a small grembiule, usually shorter and more colourful, that can be purchased cheaply.

  • ^ "School uniforms in the UK". Archived from the original on 2016-10-21.

    Brazilian school uniforms can vary widely by school. There are many schools that opt for a more elegant outfit, while others opt for a simpler one (social shirt, shorts). Some schools use "intelligent uniforms" embedded with locator chips that allow computers to automatically record whether pupils have arrived in school or not.

    If pupils do not turn up for school or classes, an automated message is sent to inform the parents accordingly. The benefit of the automated system is to curb absenteeism and class skipping. [6] In this country, where schools have set a uniform, it is the student's obligation to wear it


  • ^ "Venezuela - Post Report - e Diplomat". Some parents send their children to school in a grembiule even if the school does not require it.

  • ^ Elaine Webster, "New Zealand School Uniforms in the Era of Democracy: 1965 to 1975" Archived 2012-10-24 at the Wayback Machine in Costume, Volume 42, Number 1, 2008 , pp.
  • Primary schools or Sekolah Dasar ( SD) students wear a white short-sleeve shirt with red shorts for male students, and below-knee skirts for females. President Obama with students at an Australian school in 2011.

  • ^ Agebewode, Samuel (18 December 2010). "North Tongu District Distributes Free School Uniforms, Exercise Books to 40 Schools". Most schools in Vietnam require uniforms. The rules on uniform vary between schools and areas.

    The most common type of uniform consists of a white shirt with a school logo on left sleeve and navy/black trousers, with a red scarf for students from grade 3 to grade 9. This kind of uniform is often seen in public schools in North Vietnam and in rural areas. There is no differences between boys' and girls' uniforms.

    However, many schools (usually private or famous public schools) have their own designed uniforms, which often replace trousers with skirts for girls or include bows, ties or vests/blazers. [86]

  • ^ "- The Cambodia Charitable Trust".
  • ^ "Worksheets: My school is linked with Africa". The school badge is usually put on the right sleeve of a shirt, consist of school's name and location, and some have their own school's logo.

    Others prefer to wear the school's logo as a lapel or breast plastic or metal pin. The emblem of OSIS ( Organisasi Siswa Intra Sekolah), or School's Intern Student Organization, is put on the shirt's left pocket. Students' names are usually on the right side of the shirt and embedded by sewing, ironing or as a detachable badge.

    Some schools (usually "SMP" and "SMA") distinguish the grade of their students by stripes on the official neckties issued or an emblem below the school emblem (it can be stripes, chevrons or numbers). Nowadays some schools require the students to wear an Indonesian flag school badge sewn on top of their left pocket. [ citation needed] Wales [ edit ]

  • ^ Aliran Pemikiran Pendidik Malaysia.


  • ^ "Problems at School"
    . The Welsh Assembly Government issued detailed guidance to governing bodies on uniform and appearance policies that begins by making explicit, "There is no education legislation specifically covering the wearing of school uniform or other aspects of appearance such as hair colour and style, and the wearing of jewellery and makeup. However, as part of its responsibility for the conduct of the school, a governing body can specify a uniform which pupils are required to wear and other rules relating to appearance.

    " [73] Northern Ireland [ edit ] "Fast Facts. "A Brief History of School Uniforms and Dress Code". THE SCHOOL UNIFORM MOVEMENT and What It Tells about AMERICAN EDUCATION. Com/news/uk-england-29047752

  • ^ a b http://one-europe. Info/school-uniform-the-russian-experience For instance, red, white or blue polo shirts, with a logo, with navy or khaki bottoms and a belt, was the uniform policy imposed at Palmer Elementary School in Houston, Texas.

    [77] Schools may also have polo shirts and trousers as a uniform. Dress codes vary widely among private schools, although a Catholic school uniform tends to keep the shirt and tie. [78]

  • ^ "หนึ่งลมหายใจ" (November 2007).

    เผด็จการเนียน ๆ ในโรงเรียน (in Thai).



  • ^ See e. School uniform price list making a distinction between summer uniform and winter uniform.

  • ^ "Darcos ressort l'uniforme du placard".
  • ^ Israel QA File news, Israel diplomatic map Archived 2009-04-03 at the Wayback Machine
  • ^ Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 2003.

    Surat Pekeliling Iktisas Bil:7/2003 - Kuasa Guru Merotan Murid Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine.

  • ^ "A parent's guide to schooling", SouthAfrica. The uniform rule only applies to students of primary, secondary, and higher secondary education. Although there are no uniforms for university students in Bangladesh, they are expected to follow the respective dress codes of their institutions.

  • ^ "Public School Uniform Statistics - Education Bug". Wikimedia Commons has media related to School uniforms.

  • ^ "The schools provisions of the Act". Equality and Human Rights Commission. Most schools pay attention to the shoes that can be worn.

    Black or white sneakers with white laces are the most common shoes. Few higher-level students, such as in SMA or SMK, are normally required to wear black leather shoes. Uniform rules Archived 2009-05-29 at the Wayback Machine at Logan Park High School.

  • ^ Dunbar, Jane (24 November 2011).

    "Are school uniforms too short?"

    . School uniforms used to be the norm in the state's early days, but have since fallen out of favour.

    However, in recent years, the number of schools using school uniforms has been increasing once more. Many teachers, parents and students are in favour of returning the school uniform to common use to prevent the deepening of the gap between affluent children and those less well-off. Nowadays school uniforms are mainly associated with "national religious" schools within the Israeli system of education.

    [29] Schools for Arab citizens of Israel also frequently require uniforms: for girls, it is often a pinafore to be worn over trousers and shirt.

  • ^ Examples of different school uniforms in Vietnam http://www. Php?showtopic=305508&st=0 Brazil [ edit ] Nowadays, with the increase of private schools in Indonesia, most private schools have their own signature school uniform. Most consist of shirts with shorts or trousers for males, and skirts for females, only with differences on the colour.

  • ^ Tan Ee Loo, "Teachers and students scoff at 'baseless' statement" Archived 2008-10-07 at the Wayback Machine, The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 23 May 2008.
  • ^ "Dress for Success: Public School Uniforms".
  • ^ "IIEP UNESCO" (PDF).

    The schools that do require uniforms, or a more common standard dress code in towns and suburbs, tend to be more casual than those in Britain or other commonwealth nations. Commonly, students wear collared, buttoned shirts, with a tie for boys and a tie for girls, worn with khaki trousers, and a belt, depending on the age of the school's student body. Skirts of a modest length are occasionally an option for girls.

    The most common secondary school uniform in Northern Ireland is a shirt, blazer and sweater with a tie and a skirt or trousers. The uniform (most likely the sweater and tie) may change after Year 12. The uniform in primary school is similar to those used in the Republic of Ireland.

    As of August 2013, almost one fifth of all American schools required their students to wear uniforms (Flam). This 20 percent of schools requiring uniforms is six percent higher than in 2003, the U.

    Department of Education reported. [ citation needed] The uniform requirement is more common in lower socio-economic schools, where more than three-fourths of the school's student population receives free or reduced lunch ("Fast"). Forty-seven percent of low income schools require uniforms, whereas only about six percent of high socio-economic schools require uniforms ("Fast").

    [ citation needed] Research studies and legislation [ edit ] School uniforms are compulsory for school children in Burundi. [7] Burundi, like most African countries, has a compulsory school uniform policy. Burundi's school uniform policy dates back to the colonial days.

    During those days, chiefs' sons wore a white uniform and all other children wore khaki. [8] The uniform policy is still in force in Burundi to date. However, schools decide on what uniform the pupils wear.

    It is also argued that the cost of buying the school uniform and poverty, especially in the rural areas, negatively affect school enrollment. [9] Cambodia [ edit ]

  • ^ "Um em cada quatro alunos de escola estadual recebe uniforme".

  • ^ The Global Fund, PROPOSAL FORM – ROUND 9
  • ^ http://www. Com/2010/01/19/st-marys-committee-asks-parents-about-uniforms Public schools in Indonesia tolerate religious freedoms.

    For example, Muslim girls may opt to wear long-sleeve shirts, longer skirts, and jilbab to cover their heads. Most schools in Indonesia also have a batik uniform, usually worn on Thursday or Friday. This kind of uniform consists of a batik short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirt, with long or short trousers for SMA and below-knee or long skirts for females.

    The motifs and colours of batik depend on the school. Some schools tend to issue neckties and/or vests for their students. These neckties and vests may vary from school to school in colour and sewing pattern, even among public schools.

    In most high schools a PE uniform is the norm for sports days only. At many high schools, children are required to change into and out of their PE uniform around the PE lesson. The PE uniform usually consists of shorts and a polo shirt, as well as a light weatherproof rain jacket (mainly at private or Catholic schools), usually made of polyester, for winter and wet weather and sometimes a netball skirt for girls.

    It is common for students in their final year of primary school or secondary school to have their own jersey, jumper or jacket to denote their final-year status. In July 2008 Education Minister Mariastella Gelmini proposed the re-introduction of the compulsory smock in public schools, provoking a debate in the Italian press. [32] Japan [ edit ] In the Haredi or ultra-Orthodox school system, uniforms are compulsory in essentially all girls' schools.

    In the vast majority of these, the style adopted by the Beit Ya'akov network is used: a sky-blue, button-down, open-collar, loose-fitting blouse with an Oxford-blue, pleated skirt which comes to just below the knee and dark stockings. In cold weather, a Yale-blue sweater may be added. A small fraction of schools alter the color scheme to pink and burgundy, while otherwise retaining the same overall appearance.

    In boys' schools there is usually not an identifiable school uniform, distinct from what is considered acceptable for ordinary street wear. However, the standards of acceptable street wear for boys and men in Haredi communities are so precise and exacting that in almost all cases all of the boys in a particular school will be dressed identically.

  • ^ "Nicholas's Story".

    Some elementary schools advise some kind of grembiule for the younger pupils. Sometimes girls are required to wear a pink or white grembiulino, while boys may be required to wear a short cotton jacket, usually blue or black. In other cases both boys and girls may be required to wear a more neutral blue grembiule.

  • ^ "School Uniforms in Turkey".

  • ^ Lam, Sophia (2018-03-16). "A tale of two cities in uniforms: the story behind green school ties, tartan skirts and blue cheongsams".
  • ^ "Japan's schoolgirls set the trend".
  • ^ Public School Uniform Statistics.

  • ^ "Dress Code in TCDSB Schools".

  • ^ "Venezuela - Researching Virtual Initiatives in Education".


  • ^ McCourt, Laura (4 January 2013). "School Uniform Policy in Scotland, England, Wales and the Republic of Ireland briefing paper 48/13" (PDF).

    Northern Ireland Assembly Research and Information Service. In 2004 the Italian chapter of WWF warned that synthetic grembiuli were harmful to pupils.

    [31] A school uniform worn in Scotland – Marr College in Troon (socks and shorts are not part of the uniform, pupils can wear either trousers or skirts and shorter socks) Children cannot be disciplined for not wearing a uniform if their parents do not want their child to wear it. However, a child that simply refuses to wear the school uniform can be disciplined by the school if it thinks that academic or disciplinary problems might be caused by the refusal. Many schools do have a policy covering the wearing of school clothing.

    The policy may state that certain items must be worn and that other items cannot be worn, for example, jeans. Schools must take religious and cultural requirements into account when drawing up a school uniform policy. [72]

  • Alleyne, Sylvan I.

    , Velma LaPoint, Jennifer Lee and Harold W. "Black Educators' Views on Middle School Students' Dress and Uniforms: Addressing Challenges from Commercialism.

    " The Journal of Negro Education.

    4, Commercialism in the Lives of Children and Youth of Color: Education and Other Socialization Contexts (Autumn, 2003), pp. Available at JSTOR, Available at Questia, Available at EBSCOHost. Com/2012/03/23rfid-chip-brazil-student_n_1374886. Php/issuances/deped-orders/2008/document/dos200846pdf?limit=20&format=raw&start=20 However, until the early 1960s many high schools required girls to wear black grembiule (resembling a doctor smock) on top of their clothes: no uniform was required for boys. Perhaps this was because at one time high schools were the only public schools to admit both sexes (as opposed to junior schools and elementary), and girls may be required to "cover up" not to distract their male counterparts.

    Indeed, this policy was highly disputed during the sexual revolution of the 1960s and later abolished. The scout uniform has two breast pockets. Above right pocket is the student's name.

    The Gerakan Pramuka Indonesia (Indonesian Scout Movement) logo is sewn on the left pocket (for male students)

    . On the right sleeve there are scouting organization's location, number and logo, while on the left sleeve usually are the student's scouting team logo and chevrons denoting his/her grade. Male students wear International Scout Organization logo above their name and female students on their lapel.

    According to former Education Minister Limor Livnat, about 1,400 Israeli public schools require pupils to wear uniforms. [28]

  • ^ "Republic of Indonesia Ministry of Education: School Uniforms".

  • ^ a b "BBC NEWS - Europe - School uniform row grips Germany". "Geschichte der Schulkleidung". Handbuch der Geschichte des Bayerischen Bildungswesens.

  • ^ NCST Fast Facts - School Uniforms.

    418-419 In non-Haredi schools today, school uniforms in Israel consist only of a shirt with the school logo. In the summer, the uniform shirt is a simple T-shirt, while in the winter, the shirts worn are warm or hooded sweaters. Although the shirts are uniform, they usually come in various colours, and allow students to customise and express themselves even while wearing a uniform.

    The shirts sell for a very small amount of money, so that even the less well-off can acquire them. Italy [ edit ]

  • ^ "Bluecoat Schools".

    Archived from the original on 8 July 2007.

  • ^ "Ruane welcomes new uniforms for the new school term" (Press release). Every school has its own standard grooming.

    Males are not allowed to have long hair. Accessories are also normally prohibited for males, except for watches. Females are usually allowed to use simple accessories such as watches, earrings, and sometimes bracelets.

    Most schools in Brazil choose the use of uniforms. The average Brazilian school uniform for boys is a T-shirt with the school's logo, sweatpants or bermuda shorts and a sweatshirt or hoodie. The uniform for girls is very similar, but instead leggings or short shorts are worn, although ballerina pants are also highly popular.

    Younger girls may have the choice to wear a skirts with shorts underneath. In 1994, the Long Beach Unified School District, in Southern California, required school uniforms in all elementary and middle schools.

    This began a trend for uniforms in American elementary public schools, especially in urban school districts. President Clinton praised the idea in his 1996 State of the Union Address, saying that "if it means that teenagers will stop killing each other over designer jackets, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear school uniforms. " [3] The adoption of school- or district-wide uniform policies (or "standardised dress codes", less rigid than uniform requirements and allowing some leeway in parameters) has been motivated by a need to counter " gang clothing" or the pressure for families to purchase upscale-label clothing (to avoid the ostracism of their children by "fashion cliques"), as well as to improve morale and school discipline.

    [ citation needed]

  • ^ a b c d "The History of School Uniforms".

  • ^ "Authority Strategic Statement of Inverclyde Education Service". Archived from the original on March 14, 2010. In Puerto Rico, the Department of Education requires all students to wear school uniforms, with only medical exemptions. [85] Vietnam [ edit ]
  • ^ Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 1997. 3/1983 - Pakaian Seragam Murid-murid Sekolah.

    Available online at http://www. Php

  • ^ "Over 8,000 school uniforms distributed to pupils of Tarkwa Nsuaem".

    Archived from the original on 6 June 2012. Burundi [ edit ] For boys, the uniforms generally include a button-up or polo shirt with either shorts (especially for summer wear) or long trousers, usually in grey or navy blue or the school colour. Some schools allow boys to wear shorts only in younger years, and they must wear long trousers once they are a senior (17-18).

    At others, even older boys wear shorts in summer due to the heat. [4] Where short trousers are to be worn, socks in school colors (more commonly white) are often required. Girls' uniforms generally include a checkered or striped dress (usually sleeveless or short-sleeved) worn over a blouse for summer and, in most secondary schools, girls wear a skirt as well as a button-up or polo shirt in winter with a blazer and tie.

    In a number of schools, girls are also permitted to wear a button-up or polo shirt and dark trousers. Scottish law is not specific on the question of school uniform. Generally, the school must provide information on its policy on clothing and uniform and the Education Authority must provide written information on its general policy on wearing school uniform.

    Some Education Authorities do not insist on students wearing a uniform as a precondition to attending and taking part in curricular activities. [71] Poet and children's writer Gianni Rodari has described adult life as "a school without grembiule and school desk". [30]

  • ^ SMK Perempuan Sandakan.
  • ^ "School uniform: Guidance for governing bodies, school leaders, school staff and local authorities" (PDF)
  • ^ Guidance to Governing Bodies on Uniform and Appearance Policies [ permanent dead link]. Com/articles/American_school_uniforms. Asp The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) conducted a phone survey of 755 principals in 2000, which revealed that 21% of public schools had a uniform policy; 23% had firm plans to create one.

    [79] However, this only accounts for those with school uniform policies and not for standardised dress codes, which provide for allowable student dress but are slightly more lax: For instance, instead of requiring everyone to wear the same shirt, or set of shirts, they may specify "any solid collared three-button polo/oxford shirt" and leave more specific details up to the parents. In 2007-2008, 55% of public school principals said their schools enforce a strict dress code, requiring students at least wear a collared shirt and trousers with an acceptable belt to school. [80]

  • ^ "WWF: attenti ai tessuti di grembiuli e abitini per bambini" Archived 2006-08-21 at the Wayback Machine, VITA magazine, 13 September 2004.

    United States [ edit ] In Italy, school uniforms are uncommon, partially because child uniforms are associated with the era of Benito Mussolini before World War II when children were placed according to their age into Italian Fascist youth movements and had to wear uniforms inside and outside school.

  • ^ Uranaka, Taiga (12 November 2003). "Man who gave us loose white socks eyes comeback".

    Retrieved 18 March 2017 – via Japan Times Online.

  • ^ Wordie, Jason (2017-05-05)
    . "Hong Kong's school-uniform culture: a history of conformity". Most schools in the United States do not require uniforms, but instead enforce a dress code delineating what types of clothing are appropriate and inappropriate for students to wear to school.

    Dress codes vary from school to school, but are normally based on broader policies set by the school district's elected school board. Private schools and other specialized schools sometimes require uniforms.

  • ^ "制服でたどる百年".
  • ^ Pictured at The History of School Uniforms. The scouts (pramuka) uniform is used in many schools in Indonesia at least once a week.

    It consists of light-brown short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirts, with dark-brown shorts or trousers, and below-knee skirts or longer for females. The common day to wear the scout uniform usually falls on Wednesday, Friday, or Saturday. Furthermore, on certain occasions (usually on ceremonies or competitions), the uniform should be worn as full dress, with red and white scarf/necktie, dark brown beret, rope, dagger and scout's stick.

  • Upper secondary schools Sekolah Menengah Atas ( SMA) require blue-grey trousers with a short-sleeve white shirt. Females wear a below-knee-length or long blue-grey skirt, and wear short-sleeve or long-sleeve white shirts. [27]
  • ^ Saksith Saiyasombut & Siam Voices (13 January 2013).

    "Thailand: What has hair got to do with children's rights?". In Australia, each school or school system can set its own uniform policy.

    Wearing a uniform is compulsory in most Australian private and all Catholic schools, as well as in most public schools, although it is sometimes less enforced in primary schools that have uniforms. Uniforms usually have a color scheme based on the school colors. Uniform and appearance are generally strictly enforced in private and Catholic schools, though less so in public schools , which generally allow their students a reasonable amount of leeway.

    Most, if not all, private schools have the school logo incorporated in the uniform ensemble, typically on the necktie and the blazer breast pocket. School uniforms are mandatory in all public and private schools (up to 12th standard) in Bangladesh. While the color and exact cut of the uniform depend on school regulations and policies, male students in Bangladesh are usually expected to wear full/half sleeve shirts with trousers and female students are expected to wear skirts/pants with shirts or salwar kameez with belts and dupattas.

    In public schools, the uniform is usually a polo shirt for juniors and a different one for seniors and trousers or skirt. This set may be complemented by a school necktie and, typically, a v-neck jumper (pullover or sweater) or a blazer. In the summer, boys usually do not wear ties, pullovers, or blazers.

    Instead, they wear a short-sleeved version of the shirt and short trousers. A neck-tie, blazer, and hat are also common in private and Catholic schools.

  • ^ "Department issues guidelines on wearing of uniforms for exams".
  • ^ "Students get a trimming from their peers", The Star, Kuala Lumpur, 12 August 1998.

  • ^ "Obligatory School Uniforms Abolished amid Criticisms".

  • ^ Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia 1997. 2/1976 - Potongan Rambut Murid-murid' '. 418 The Northern Ireland Executive supports poor families with the cost of paying for school uniforms with a £350 primary school uniform allowance.

    This is claimed via local Education and Library Boards for parents in receipt of income support. At the end of August 2009, there were 24,135 successful applications for the grant. [74] Although the way that the uniforms are worn is usually not an issue, some state schools may have regulation on the subject (e. Height of ties, whether the shirt is tucked in or not), the selection of clothes worn, whether they follow the policy, can be very strict. For example, in black and white uniform schools, wearing colours such as grey or wearing white shoes is forbidden.

    However, in schools that only use a basic uniform (e. Jumper and trousers) the policy is often less strict.

    Org/upload/Ghana/Ghana_MDG_Report_2010. Pdf

  • ^ Bircham Dyson Bell (5 July 2012). "School uniform policies and the Equality Act 2010".

    A study conducted in 2000 found that only 23% of public, private, and sectarian schools had any sort of uniform policy in the United States at or before 2000. [75] Over the past decade, more public schools, specifically those in urban areas, have instituted stricter dress codes; roughly half the public schools in the United States have these more limiting dress codes. [76]

  • ^ I "Victorian Girls' School Uniform". Archived from the original on 27 April 2006.

    Knowledge Management Maturity Models