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. Balancing Act: US Foreign Policy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict.

  • 11 See also
  • ^ Reeves 1993, pp.
  • ^ Sidey, Hugh (1964), John F. Kennedy: Executive Order 10980". 7 Administration, Cabinet, and judicial appointments
  • ^ Donovan 2001, pp.

    2 Other courts

  • ^ John F. Kennedy: "Speech by Senator John F. Kennedy, Zionists of America Convention, Statler Hilton Hotel, New York, NY," August 26, 1960
  • ^ Kennedy, John F. Archived from the original on July 8, 2006.

    Kennedy was hospitalized at the Chelsea Naval Hospital in Chelsea, Massachusetts from May to December 1944. [35] On June 12, he was presented the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his heroic actions on August 1–2, 1943, and the Purple Heart Medal for his back injury while on PT-109. [61] Beginning in January 1945, Kennedy spent three more months recovering from his back injury at Castle Hot Springs, a resort and temporary military hospital in Arizona.

    [62] [63] After the war, Kennedy felt that the medal he had received for heroism was not a combat award and asked that he be reconsidered for the Silver Star Medal for which he had been recommended initially. His father also requested the Silver Star, which is awarded for gallantry in action, for his son

    . In 1950 The Department of the Navy offered Kennedy a Bronze Star Medal in recognition of his meritorious service, which he declined.

    [64] Kennedy's two original medals are currently on display at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

    Kennedy", Urs Swharz, Paul Hamlyn, 1964

  • 7 Assassination
  • ^ Hersh, Samson Option, pp. 110–11 The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s. Jim Crow segregation was the established law in the Deep South. Supreme Court had ruled in 1954 in Brown v.

    Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many schools, especially those in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court's decision. The Court also prohibited segregation at other public facilities (such as buses, restaurants, theaters, courtrooms, bathrooms, and beaches) but it continued nonetheless. 4 Peace Corps

  • ^ "JFK John F Kennedy baptism St.
  • ^ a b O'Brien 2005, p.
  • ^ "Americans Rate JFK as Top Modern President". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Kennedy gathered around the wreckage his surviving ten crew members to vote on whether to "fight or surrender".

    Kennedy stated: "There's nothing in the book about a situation like this. A lot of you men have families and some of you have children. What do you want to do? I have nothing to lose.

    " Shunning surrender, around 2:00 p. On August 2, the men swam towards Plum Pudding island 3. 6 km) southwest of the remains of the PT-109. [36] [47] Despite re-injuring his back in the collision, Kennedy towed a badly burned crewman through the water to the island with a life jacket strap clenched between his teeth


    [48] Kennedy made an additional two-mile swim the night of August 2, 1943, to Ferguson Passage to attempt to hail a passing American PT boat to expedite his crew's rescue and attempted to make the trip on a subsequent night, in a damaged canoe found on Naru Island where he had swum with Ensign George Ross to look for food. [49]

  • 5 1960 presidential election
  • ^ "The 'Famous Five '". The Origins of Alliances, Cornell University Press, pp. 95–96
  • ^ Reeves 1993, pp. Kennedy's Favorite Poems: "I Have a Rendezvous with Death" (Seeger)".

    "Memorandum for Vice President".

    Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Com/biography/jfk/section5/

  • ^ Reeves 1993, pp.
  • ^ "Brief Overview of Vietnam War". Swarthmore College Peace Collection.

    Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. 10 Ireland

  • ^ "JFK's personal connection to Army's Green Berets". Kennedy was concerned with other issues in the early part of his administration, such as the Cold War, Bay of Pigs fiasco, and the situation in Southeast Asia. As articulated by his brother Robert, the administration's early priority was to "keep the president out of this civil rights mess.

    " Civil rights movement participants, mainly those on the front line in the South, viewed Kennedy as lukewarm, [259] especially concerning the Freedom Riders, who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the south, and who were repeatedly met with white mob violence, including by law enforcement officers, both federal and state. Kennedy assigned federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders rather than using federal troops or uncooperative FBI agents. [259] Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to "get off the buses and leave the matter to peaceful settlement in the courts.

    " [262] Kennedy feared sending federal troops would stir up "hated memories of Reconstruction" after the Civil War among conservative Southern whites. [259]

  • ^ Reeves 1993, p. 2 Federal and military death penalty
  • ^ Ballard 2002, pp.
  • ^ a b "JFK: A Timeline of His Life 1917–1963". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.

  • ^ Geis, Anna; Müller, Harald; Schörnig, Niklas (October 10, 2013). The Militant Face of Democracy. Kennedy's military decorations and awards include the Navy and Marine Corps Medal; Purple Heart Medal; American Defense Service Medal; American Campaign Medal; Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three ​ 3⁄ 16" bronze stars; and the World War II Victory Medal.


  • ^ Reeves 1993, p. "320—Letter to the President of the Seneca Nation of Indians Concerning the Kinzua Dam on the Allegheny River". The American Presidency Project.

  • ^ Raymond, Emilie (2006). From my cold, dead hands: Charlton Heston and American politics

  • ^ a b Kenney 2000, p.

    5 Personal tragedies

  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.
  • ^ Lee Oswald claiming innocence (film), Youtube.

    1 Supreme Court

  • ^ Dallek 2003, p.
  • ^ a b Matthews 2011, pp.
  • 6 Presidency (1961–1963)
  • ^ Dallek 2003, pp.

  • JFK is First Foreign Leader to Address Dáil Éireann (Text and video) RTÉ Archives, June 28, 1963.
  • ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. And the Global Freedom Struggle". Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. In April 1943, Kennedy was assigned to Motor Torpedo Squadron TWO

    [35] On April 24, he took command of PT-109, [43] which was based at the time on Tulagi Island in the Solomons. [36] On the night of August 1–2, PT-109 was on its 31st mission with a total of fourteen other PT's ordered to block or repel four Japanese destroyers and float planes carrying food, supplies, and 900 Japanese soldiers to the Vila Plantation garrison on the southern tip of the Solomon's Kolombangara Island. Intelligence had been sent to Kennedy's base commander, Commander Thomas G.

    Warfield expecting the arrival of the large Japanese naval force that would pass on the evening of August 1. Of the 24 torpedoes fired that night by eight of the American PT's, not one hit the Japanese convoy. [44] On that dark and moonless night, Kennedy spotted a Japanese destroyer heading north on its return from the base of Kolombangara around 2:00 a. , and attempted to turn to attack, when PT-109 was rammed suddenly at an angle and cut in half by the destroyer Amagiri, killing two PT-109 crew members. [45] [46] [36]

  • ^ "RTDNA's Kennedy connections".

    Radio Television Digital News Association, November 26, 2013.

    2 Memorials and eponyms On March 6, 1961, Kennedy signed Executive Order 10925, which required government contractors to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin. " [263] It established the President's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity. Displeased with Kennedy's pace addressing the issue of segregation, Martin Luther King Jr.

    And his associates produced a document in 1962 calling on the president to follow in the footsteps of Abraham Lincoln and use an Executive Order to deliver a blow for Civil Rights as a kind of Second Emancipation Proclamation. Kennedy did not execute the order. [264]

  • ^ O'Brien 2005, p.
  • ^ JFK's "Address on the First Anniversary of the Alliance for Progress", White House reception for diplomatic cors of the Latin American republics, March 13, 1962. Public Papers of the Presidents – John F. 6 American University speech
  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.

  • ^ a b Sorensen 1966, p.
  • ^ Wikisource: John F.

    Kennedy's Address Before the 18th General Assembly of the United Nations

  • ^ Gehler, Michael; Kaiser, Professor of European Studies Wolfram; Kaiser, Wolfram (August 2, 2004). Christian Democracy in Europe Since 19455.
  • ^ a b Kennedy, John F. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. On August 4, he and Lenny Thom assisted his injured and hungry crew on a demanding swim 3. 04 km) southeast to Olasana Island, which was visible to the crew from their desolate home on Plum Pudding Island. They swam against a strong current, and once again Kennedy towed the badly burned motor machinist "Pappy" MacMahon by his life vest.

    The somewhat larger Olasana Island had ripe coconut trees, but still no fresh water. [50] On the following day, August 5, Kennedy and Ensign George Ross made the one hour swim to Naru Island, an additional distance of about.

    80 km) southwest, in search of help and food. Kennedy and Ross found a small canoe, packages of crackers, candy and a fifty-gallon drum of drinkable water left by the Japanese, which Kennedy paddled another half mile back to Olasana in the acquired canoe to provide his hungry crew. Lieutenant "Bud" Liebenow, a friend and former tentmate of Kennedy's, rescued Kennedy and his crew on Olasana Island on August 8, 1943 aboard his boat, the PT-157, with the help of coast watcher Lieutenant Reginald Evans and several native coast watchers, particularly Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana.

    [51] [52] [53] [54] Commanding the PT-59

  • ^ Page, Susan (October 4, 2011). "50 years after win, Kennedy's legacy endures".

    Kennedy took only a month to recover. On September 1, 1943, he returned to duty and took command of the PT-59, first removing the torpedo tubes and depth charges and refitting her in one month into a heavily armed gunboat bristling with two large automatic 40 cal and ten automatic 50 caliber guns. The plan was to attach one gunboat to each PT boat section to add gun range and power against barges and shore batteries which the 59 encountered on several occasions in mid October through mid November.

    [55] On October 8, Kennedy was promoted to full lieutenant. [56] On November 2, Kennedy's PT-59 took part with two other PT's in the successful rescue of 40-50 marines. The 59 acted as a shield from shore fire and protected them as they escaped on two rescue landing craft at the base of the Warrior River at Choiseul Island, taking ten marines aboard and delivering them to safety.

    [57] [58] Under doctor's orders, Kennedy was relieved of his command of PT-59 on November 18, and sent to the hospital on Tulagi. [59] From there he returned to the United States in early January 1944. After receiving treatment for his back injury, he was released from active duty in late 1944.


  • ^ "USS PT-109 Final Crew List". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.
  • ^ "Kennedy Plane Found to Be Fully Functional".

    1 Funeral

  • ^ a b Salt 2008, p. Kennedy Memo for Vice President, 20 April 1961" (PDF).

    Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis (PDF). Monographs in Aerospace History Number 3.

  • ^ a b Brauer 2002, p. 3 Civil Rights Movement
  • ^ a b Johnson, Lyndon B. "Memorandum for the President". Office of the Vice President (Memorandum). Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

    1 Wife and children

  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.
  • ^ a b c "Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)". Naval History & Heritage Command.

    Archived from the original on May 27, 2012.

  • ^ "Memorial Hall Auditorium Filled to Capacity at Annual Freshman Smoker". Archived from the original on August 2, 2016.

    5 Native American relations

  • ^ Murray and Cox, Apollo, p. 7 West Berlin speech
  • ^ Dallek 2003, p.

  • ^ a b Brinkley 2012, pp.
  • ^ "Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1917-1963)".

    Archived from the original on June 1, 2017.

  • 13 References On August 12, 1944, Kennedy's older brother, Joe Jr.

    , a navy pilot, was killed while volunteering for a special and hazardous air mission. His explosive-laden plane blew up when the plane's bombs detonated prematurely while the aircraft was flying over the English Channel. [66]

  • ^ Salinger, Pierre (1997). Kennedy: Commander in Chief: A Profile in Leadership.
  • ^ "Citation for the Navy Marine Corps Medal".

    Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

    6 Space policy

  • ^ "Leonard Jay "Lenny" Thom (1917–1946)". Archived from the original on December 8, 2015.

  • ^ a b c d e Brauer 2002, p.
  • ^ a b Jaikumar, Arjun (July 10, 2011). "On taxes, let's be Kennedy Democrats. Kennedy Miscellaneous Information". Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. 3 Military awards
  • ^ "Books for Lawyers".

    American Bar Association Journal: 556. "Remarks Prepared for Delivery at the Trade Mart in Dallas, TX, November 22, 1963 [Undelivered]".

    Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

  • ^ Ippolito, Dennis (2004). Why Budgets Matter: Budget Policy and American Politics. In early 1963, Kennedy related to Martin Luther King Jr.

    His thoughts on the prospects for civil rights legislation: "If we get into a long fight over this in Congress, it will bottleneck everything else, and we will still get no bill. " [269] Civil rights clashes were on the rise that year. [270] Brother Robert and Ted Sorenson pressed Kennedy to take more initiative on the legislative front.


  • ^ "Greatest of the Century".
  • ^ Schlesinger 2002, pp.

  • ^ Sorensen, Ted (1965). "Wall Street Journal, May 9, 2008, p.

    W3, review of Counselor, by Ted Sorensen". "Address to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association". Archived from the original on August 2, 2016.

    The 1963 LIFE article represented the first use of the term "Camelot" in print and is attributed with having played a major role in establishing and fixing this image of the Kennedy Administration and period in the popular mind.

  • ^ "Navy SEALs Were Launched in the JFK 'Man on the Moon' Speech". [ dead link]
  • ^ Kennedy, John F.
  • Address Before the Irish Parliament in Dublin, June 28, 1963 (Text and audio) Kennedy Library and Museum, June 28, 1963. Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109, 1943
  • ^ "JFK's epic Solomons swim" BBC News July 30, 2003.

  • ^ Carter, Bill (September 15, 2001). "Viewers Again Return To Traditional Networks".
  • ^ wikisource – Executive Order No.


  • ^ "Operation Aphrodite ‹ HistoricWings. Com :: A Magazine for Aviators, Pilots and Adventurers".
  • ^ "Obama joins list of seven presidents with Harvard degrees". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.
  • ^ Dana Blanton (June 18, 2004). "Poll: Most Believe 'Cover-Up' of JFK Assassination Facts". Archived from the original on April 16, 2010.

    4 Health

  • ^ Jr, Edward J. The Kennedys at War: 1937-1945.

    Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 9780385505291 – via Google Books.

  • ^ Cover story, Time magazine, January 20, 1961
  • ^ Donovan 2001, pp
    . Early life and education
  • 14.

    1 Primary sources

  • ^ "50 years after win, Kennedy's legacy endures".

  • ^ Caro, Robert (2012)
    . The Passage of Power: The Years of Lyndon Johnson. Planned massive Cuba invasion force, kidnapping of Cuban officials".

  • ^ a b Edward Smith, Dr. "Kennedy and Defense The formative years"
  • ^ Gus Russo and Stephen Molton "Did Castro OK the Kennedy Assassination?," American Heritage, Winter 2009. 1 Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • ^ "Martin Luther King, Jr. And the Global Freedom Struggle". Archived from the original on April 8, 2017. 2 Historiography and memory
  • 14 Further reading
  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.
  • ^ "The Children of Jacqueline Kennedy"

  • 8 Personal life, family, and reputation
  • ^ "John F.

    Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.

    1 Effect of assassination

  • ^ Donovan 2001, pp.

  • ^ a b "Marking the 50th Anniversary of JFK's Speech on Campus".
  • ^ Benson, Kenneth Arline (August 14, 1963).

    "The "House That Jack Built": JFK And His Late Brother Built Adobe Shack For Arizona Rancher".

  • ^ "The Story of Leonard Jay Thom. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.
  • ^ Gleijeses (1995), pp. 9–19
  • ^ Brinkley 2012, p.

    "From Press Office: Senator John F. Kennedy, Immigration and Naturalization Laws, Hyannis Inn Motel, Hyannis, MA". Online by Gerhard Peters and John T.

    Woolley, The American Presidency Project.

  • ^ "Legislative Summary: District of Columbia". Johnson, Vice President, Memo for the President, 'Evaluation of Space Program,' 28 April 1961" (PDF).

    Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis (PDF). Monographs in Aerospace History Number 3.

  • ^ "Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1964" (PDF).
  • ^ "The FBI's War on King".
  • ^ "Norton Letter to U.

    Attorney Says Death Penalty Trial That Begins Today Part of Troubling and Futile Pattern". Office of Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton.

  • ^ "NSAM 273: South Vietnam". Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. 1 Citations
  • ^ An Epilogue, in LIFE, Dec 6, 1963, pp.


  • ^ a b Bundy, McGeorge (October 11, 1963). "National Security Action Memorandum # 263".

    Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. In September 1931, Kennedy started attending Choate, a prestigious boarding school in Wallingford, Connecticut, for 9th through 12th grade

    . Had already been at Choate for two years and was a football player and leading student. He spent his first years at Choate in his older brother's shadow and compensated with rebellious behavior that attracted a coterie.

    They carried out their most notorious stunt by exploding a toilet seat with a powerful firecracker. In the ensuing chapel assembly, the strict headmaster, George St. John, brandished the toilet seat and spoke of certain "muckers" who would "spit in our sea".

    The defiant Kennedy took the cue and named his group "The Muckers Club", which included roommate and lifelong friend Kirk LeMoyne "Lem" Billings. 2 Popular image

  • ^ Online NewsHour with Senior Correspondent Ray Suarez and physician Jeffrey Kelman, "Pres.

    Kennedy's Health Secrets", The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer transcript, November 18, 2002

  • ^ Bone, James (February 17, 2010), "How JFK's Riviera romance led to years of longing", The Times, London.
  • 12 Notes
  • ^ a b Reeves 1993, p.
  • ^ Meisler, Stanley (2011). When the World Calls: The Inside Story of the Peace Corps and Its First Fifty Years. During his years at Choate, Kennedy was beset by health problems that culminated with his emergency hospitalization in 1934 at New Haven Hospital, where doctors thought he might have had leukemia.

    [17] In June 1934, he was admitted to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota; the ultimate diagnosis there was colitis. [17] Kennedy graduated from Choate in June of the following year, finishing 64th in a class of 112 students

    . [11] He had been the business manager of the school yearbook and was voted the "most likely to succeed". 3 Latin America and communism
  • ^ Schlesinger 2002, pp. 3 Civil liberties
  • ^ Dallek 2003, p.
  • ^ "Broadcast Yourself".
  • ^ "Remarks of Senator John F.

    Kennedy at Saint Anselm's College, Manchester, New Hampshire, March 5, 1960". Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum.

    Archived from the original on August 2, 2016. Archived from the original on August 3, 2016.

  • ^ "Pell, Claiborne: Oral History Interview - JFK #1, 2/6/1967 | JFK Library". "26, 2009#P12844 Life in Legacy". Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. The TFX decision; McNamara and the military.

    1 Economy

  • ^ "The Equal Pay Act Turns 40". Archived from the original on June 26, 2012.

  • ^ Specious allegations in 1997 by UK journalist Terry O'Hanlon Golden, Andrew (July 27, 1997).

    The Truth At Last; Kennedy was already married when he got wed to Jackie.

    And by author Seymour Hersh Reingold, Joyce (March 26, 2008). "JFK 'Secret Marriage' A Story With Legs".

    Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. That Kennedy had married previously have been soundly disproven.

    Reeves states that Ben Bradlee, then at Newsweek, inspected FBI files on it, and confirmed the falsehood.  348; for further refutation, see O'Brien 2005, p.

  • ^ "Inflation in Steel".
  • ^ Grantham (1988), The Life and Death of the Solid South: A Political History, p. 156
  • ^ Kenney 2000, p
  • ^ "The Presidency: Smiting the Foe". 11 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
  • ^ a b Reeves 1993, p.

  • ^ Schlesinger 2002, p.

    Kennedy's WWII Medals: Navy Marine Corps Medal and Purple Heart". Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.

    Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.

  • ^ "Churches Attended by John F.
  • JFK Homecoming Memory Project
  • ^ Tyner Allen, Erika. "The Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debates, 1960". Archived from the original on July 27, 2008.

  • ^ a b c d e f g h "John Fitzgerald Kennedy 29 May 1917 – 22 November 1963". Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. 3 "Camelot Era"
  • ^ Levine, Anold S. Managing NASA in the Apollo Era, chapter 27, "The Lunar Landing Decision and Its Aftermath". 4 Immigration
  • ^ Douthat, Ross (November 26, 2011). "The Enduring Cult of Kennedy". 5 Southeast Asia
  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.
  • ^ Trachtenberg, Marc (February 8, 1999). A Constructed Peace: The Making of the European Settlement, 1945–1963.  403, Appendix Eight (Chapter Nine, Note 134).

    Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Thurgood Marshall, appointed to the bench by Kennedy in May 1961

  • ^ Donovan 2001, pp. "Apollo Expeditions to the Moon: Chapter 2". John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, at 83 Beals Street in suburban Brookline, Massachusetts, [6] to businessman/politician Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy and philanthropist/socialite Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy. Kennedy was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature. Kennedy's maternal grandfather and namesake John F. Congressman and was elected to two terms as Mayor of Boston.

    All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants. [1] Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. , and seven younger siblings: Rosemary, Kathleen ("Kick"), Eunice, Patricia, Robert ("Bobby"), Jean, and Edward ("Ted").

    As of 2019, [update] he has been the only Catholic U. 1 Commanding the PT-109

  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.
  • ^ Clarke, John (May 19, 2015), "Selling J. 's Boat", The New Yorker , retrieved October 2, 2015
  • ^ "Peoria Open Space Master Plan: Chapter 4 - Historic and Cultural Resources" (PDF).

    Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2014.

  • ^ Levine, Future of the US Space Program, p. "JFK's Very Revealing Harvard Application Essay".

    1 House of Representatives (1947–1953)

  • ^ Failla, Zak (November 18, 2013). "Looking Back on JFK's Time in Bronxville". Both the President and the Attorney General were concerned about King's ties to suspected Communists Jack O'Dell and Stanley Levison. After the President and his civil rights expert Harris Wofford pressed King to ask both men to resign from the SCLC, King agreed to ask only O'Dell to resign from the organization and allowed Levison, whom he regarded as a trusted advisor, to remain.


  • ^ a b c Salt 2008, p.
  • 9 Historical evaluations and legacy
  • 6. 9 Iraq
  • ^ Ninkovich, Frank (November 15, 1994).
  • President Kennedy in Ireland (Text and video) RTÉ Archives.

  • 4 Congressional career (1947–1960)
  • ^ "Vietnam War Allied Troop Levels 1960–73". Archived from the original on August 2, 2016.

  • ^ Jean Edward Smith, "Bay of Pigs: The Unanswered Questions", The Nation, April 13, 1964.

    In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi but was prevented from entering. In response to that, Robert Kennedy, now U.

    Attorney General, sent 400 federal marshals, while President Kennedy reluctantly sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned out violent

    . [265] The Ole Miss riot of 1962 left two people dead and a dozen others injured, but Meredith did finally enroll for class. Kennedy regretted not sending in troops earlier and he began doubting as to whether the "evils of Reconstruction" of the 1860s and 1870s he had been taught or believed in were true.

    [259] The instigating subculture at the Old Miss riot, and at many other racially ignited events, was the Ku Klux Klan. [266] On November 20, 1962, Kennedy signed Executive Order 11063, which prohibited racial discrimination in federally supported housing or "related facilities". [267]

  • ^ Reeves 1993, p. 2 Senate (1953–1960)
  • ^ a b Reeves 1993, pp.
  • ^ Schlesinger 2002, pp. 2 Commanding the PT-59
  • ^ Reeves 1993, p. 6 Affairs, extramarital relationships and friendships
  • ^ Reeves 1993, p. Kennedy Received "Non-Combat" Recognition for Wartime Action". Defense Media Network, Faircount Media Group.

    Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.

  • ^ "Book by President Kennedy To Be Published on Oct.
  • ^ Rogan, Aaron (March 15, 2018).

    "JFK video: hear Kennedy's 'lost' Dallas speech in his own voice".

  • ^ Schlesinger 2002, pp.
  • ^ Schlesinger 2002, pp.

    In his first State of the Union Address in January 1961, President Kennedy said, "The denial of constitutional rights to some of our fellow Americans on account of race – at the ballot box and elsewhere – disturbs the national conscience, and subjects us to the charge of world opinion that our democracy is not equal to the high promise of our heritage. " [260] Kennedy believed the grassroots movement for civil rights would anger many Southern whites and make it more difficult to pass civil rights laws in Congress, including anti-poverty legislation, and he distanced himself from it. [261]

  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.
  • ^ a b c d e "President John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917–1963)". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.
  • 1 Early life and education
  • ^ Hersh, Samson Option, p. 112
  • ^ Gitlin (2009), The Ku Klux Klan: A Guide to an American Subculture, p.


  • ^ a b "Presidents Who Served in the U. Naval History & Heritage Command.

    Archived from the original on May 5, 2011.

  • ^ Rouse, Robert (March 15, 2006). "Happy Anniversary to the first scheduled presidential press conference—93 years young!". Archived from the original on September 13, 2008.
  • ^ a b c "BEA: Quarterly GDP figures by sector, 1953–1964". United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

    Archived from the original on March 6, 2012.

  • ^ "Executions 1790 to 1963". Archived from the original on April 13, 2003.

  • ^ a b c Nelson 2009, p. "Endocrine and Autoimmune Aspects of the Health History of John F.

    7326/0003-4819-151-5-200909010-00011. Kennedy Accepting the Democratic Party Nomination for the Presidency of the United States".

  • ^ In the first week of June there were 160 incidents of violence. Kennedy on His Historic Trip to Ireland".
  • ^ "Generations Divide Over Military Action in Iraq". Archived from the original on February 2, 2008. "The Civilian Conservation Corps in Southern Arizona: Jack and Joe Kennedy in Arizona". The Civilian Conservation Corps in Southern Arizona. 1 Navy and Marine Corps Medal citation
  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.

    Navy Reserve (1941–1945)

  • ^ https://fansinaflashbulb. Com/2016/03/21/the-new-generation-offers-a-leader/
  • ^ Reeves 1993, p. "The FBI and Martin Luther King".
  • ^ a b O'Brien 2005, p.

  • ^ "Voter Education Project". Archived from the original on June 5, 2017.

  • ^ "Peace Corps, Fast Facts". Archived from the original on August 2, 2016. 2 Cuban Missile Crisis
  • ^ a b Ghaemi M. "What Jackie Kennedy Didn't Say—and Didn't Know". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.

  • ^ This Day in History 1967: JFK's body moved to permanent gravesite, History.
  • ^ "10 Things You May Not Know About John F.
  • ^ Dunnigan & Nofi 1999, p.
  • ^ Riechmann, Deb (July 29, 2008).

    "Bush: Former Army cook's crimes warrant execution".

    Archived from the original on July 31, 2008.

  • ^ "Consumer and Gross Domestic Price Indices: 1913 to 2002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2005.

  • ^ a b Brauer 2002, p.

    Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.

  • ^ Talbot, David (June 21, 2007).
  • ^ Soderstrom, Carl; Soderstrom, Robert; Stevens, Chris; Burt, Andrew (2018). Forty Gavels: The Life of Reuben Soderstrom and the Illinois AFL-CIO.

  • ^ The Personal Papers of Theodore H
    . White (1915–1986): Series 11.

    Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum quotation:

  • ^ Selverstone, Marc. White House Tapes–Presidential Recordings Program, Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia.

    Archived from the original on March 5, 2012.

  • ^ "Joseph Kennedy Jr".

    Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.

  • ^ "1963: Warm welcome for JFK in Ireland". Archived from the original on August 3, 2016.
  • ^ Blight & Lang 2005, p.
  • ^ de Quesada, Alejandro The Bay of Pigs: Cuba 1961 (2011) p. Kennedy: 1962 : containing the public messages, speeches, and statements of the president, January 20 to December 31, 1962.

  • ^ Cowell, Alan (December 29, 2006). "JFK faced 3 death threats during '63 visit to Ireland"
    . Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Kennedy's Princeton University undergraduate alumni file". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016.

  • ^ "Fast Facts about John F. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first ten years of his life and attended the local St.

    Aidan's Church, where he was baptized on June 19, 1917. [8] [9] He was educated at the Edward Devotion School in Brookline, the Noble and Greenough Lower School in nearby Dedham, Massachusetts, and the Dexter School (also in Brookline) through the 4th grade. His father's business had kept him away from the family for long stretches of time, and his ventures were concentrated on Wall Street and Hollywood.

    In September 1927, the family moved from Brookline to the Riverdale neighborhood of New York City

    . [10] [11] Young John attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years later, the family moved to suburban Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Boy Scout Troop 2 and attended St. [1] [12] The Kennedy family spent summers and early autumns [13] at their home (rented in 1926, then purchased in 1929) [14] in Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, and Christmas and Easter holidays at their winter retreat in Palm Beach, Florida, later purchased in 1933. In September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut, for 8th grade.

    In April 1931, he had an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. 1 Foreign policy

  • ^ Bugliosi 2007, p.
  • ^ a b Brauer 2002, p.
  • ^ "Doctors attending to Kennedy reported". "Substance Over Sex In Kennedy Biography".

  • ^ The Gallup Poll 1999. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc. On March 1, 1945, Kennedy retired from the Navy Reserve on physical disability and was honorably discharged with the full rank of lieutenant.

    [61] When later asked how he became a war hero, Kennedy joked: "It was easy. " [67] Military awards

  • ^ Reeves 1993, p.

  • ^ Cosgrave, Ben (May 24, 2014). "Head to Head: JFK and RFK, Los Angeles, July 1960". 2 Works cited
  • ^ Barbara A.

    Perry in Rose Kennedy, the Life and Times of a Political Matriarch ISBN 978-0-393-06895-5 p. 248

  • ^ O'Brien 2005, p.

  • ^ a b Dallek 2003, pp.
  • ^ a b Reeves 1993, p.
  • ^ Warren Commission Hearings, vol. 3—Handwritten notes made by Seth Kantor concerning events surrounding the assassination
  • ^ O'Brien 2005, pp.
  • 10 Media
  • ^ a b Dudley & Shiraev 2008, p.

    Kennedy verbally supported racial integration and civil rights; during his 1960 presidential campaign, he telephoned Coretta Scott King, wife of the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. , who had been jailed while trying to integrate a department store lunch counter. Robert Kennedy called Georgia governor Ernest Vandiver and obtained King's release from prison, which drew additional black support to his brother's candidacy.

    [257] Upon taking office in 1961, Kennedy postponed promised civil rights legislation he made while campaigning in 1960, recognizing that conservative Southern Democrats controlled congressional legislation. Brauer concluded that passing any civil rights legislation in 1961 would have been futile.

    [258] During his first year in office, Kennedy appointed many blacks to office including his May appointment of civil rights attorney Thurgood Marshall to the federal bench. [259]

  • 15 External links
  • 6.

    8 Israel

  • ^ "Majority in U. Still Believe JFK Killed in a Conspiracy: Mafia, federal government top list of potential conspirators". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016

  • ^ Hanks, Patrick; Hardcastle, Kate; Hodges, Flavia (2006). Oxford Paperback Reference (2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • ^ Bundy, McGeorge (November 26, 1963).

    "National Security Action Memorandum Number 273".

  • ^ Goldberg, Carey (May 6, 2001). "Federal Executions Have Been Rare but May Increase".
  • ^ Cronkite, Walter (1996).

  • ^ a b c Dallek, Robert (December 2002).

    Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Contents

  • ^ Dallek 2003, pp.
  • ^ New York Sun September 20, 2005: "Dr. Feelgood" Retrieved July 11, 2011
  • ^ Brinkley 2012, p.

    1 Judicial appointments

  • ^ Mufson, Steve (August 4, 2015). "Obama will echo Kennedy's American University nuclear speech from 1963".
  • ^ "Lieutenant John F. Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. "JFK in the Senate: Pathway to the Presidency". [ permanent dead link]
  • ^ Dallek 2003, p.
  • ^ a b Dallek 2003, p.
  • ^ "Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U

  • 3 Journalism
  • ^ Ludden, Jennifer. Kennedy on Immigration, Then & Now".
  • ^ Shapley, Deborah (1993). Promise and power: the life and times of Robert McNamara.

    Knowledge Based Economy Malaysia