Where is Ireland ranked in education?
. (Hot copy: an industry update)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Census Age and Sex Composition: 2010" (PDF). The book's title came not from Billy Idol's band, as many supposed, but from the final chapter of a funny sociological book on American class structure titled Class, by Paul Fussell. In his final chapter, Fussell named an "X" category of people who wanted to hop off the merry-go-round of status, money, and social climbing that so often frames modern existence.
  Mosi Reeves, "Easy-Chair Rap", Village Voice, 29 January 2002. The Gen X childhood coincided with the sexual revolution, which Susan Gregory Thomas described in her book In Spite of Everything as confusing and frightening for children in cases where a parent would bring new sexual partners into their home. Thomas also discussed how divorce was different during the Gen X childhood, with the child having a limited or severed relationship with one parent following divorce, often the father, due to differing societal and legal expectations. S states allowed for joint custody of children, which has since been adopted by all 50 states following a push for joint custody during the mid-1980s.  
"The Making of 'To Save Our Schools, To Save Our Children': A Conversation With Marshall Frady".
Author Jeff Gordinier, in his 2008 book X Saves the World, defines Generation X as those born roughly between 1961 and 1977 but possibly as late as 1980.  Canadian author and professor David Foot divides the post-boomer generation into two groups: Generation X, born between 1960 and 1966; and the "Bust Generation", born between 1967 and 1979, In his book Boom Bust & Echo: How to Profit from the Coming Demographic Shift.  
"22 Signs You're Stuck Between Gen X And Millennials".
Will Hodgkinson, "Adventures on the wheels of steel", The Guardian, 19 September 2003.
Many researchers and demographers use dates which correspond to the fertility-patterns in the population, which results in a Generation X starting-date of 1965, such as Pew Research Center which uses a range of 1965–1980,  Australia's McCrindle Research Center which uses 1965–1979,  and Gallup which also uses 1965–1979.  PricewaterhouseCoopers, a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, describes Generation X employees as those born from 1965 to 1980. 
"Are generation X the UK's hardest workers?".
 Gen Xers were children during a time of increasing divorce rates, with divorce rates doubling in the mid-1960s, before peaking in 1980.    Strauss and Howe described a cultural shift where the long-held societal value of staying together for the sake of the children was replaced with a societal value of parental and individual self-actualization. Strauss wrote that society "moved from what Leslie Fiedler called a 1950s-era 'cult of the child' to what Landon Jones called a 1970s-era 'cult of the adult'.
"   The Generation Map, a report from Australia's McCrindle Research Center writes of Gen X children: "their Boomer parents were the most divorced generation in Australian history". 
Jon Miller at the Longitudinal Study of American Youth at the University of Michigan wrote that "Generation X refers to adults born between 1961 and 1981" and it "includes 84 million people".
Gen Xers came of age or were children during the crack epidemic, which disproportionately impacted urban areas and also the African-American community in the US. Drug turf battles increased violent crime, and crack addiction impacted communities and families. Between 1984 and 1989, the homicide rate for black males aged 14 to 17 doubled in the US, and the homicide rate for black males aged 18 to 24 increased almost as much.
The crack epidemic had a destabilizing impact on families with an increase in the number of children in foster care.   Generation X was the first cohort to come of age with MTV and are sometimes called the MTV Generation.   They experienced the emergence of punk rock, music videos, grunge, alternative rock and hip hop.
 In South Africa, Gen Xers spent their formative years of the 1980s during the "hyper-politicized environment of the final years of apartheid".  In the US, Generation X was the first cohort to grow up post-integration. They were described in a marketing report by Specialty Retail as the kids who "lived the civil rights movement.
" They were among the first children to be bused to attain integration in the public school system. In the 1990s, Strauss reported Gen Xers were "by any measure the least racist of today's generations".   In the US, Title IX, which passed in 1972, provided increased athletic opportunities to Gen X girls in the public school setting.
 In Russia, Generation Xers are referred to as "the last Soviet children", as the last children to come of age prior to the downfall of communism in their nation and prior to the fall of the Soviet Union. 
One in five American children grew up in poverty during this time. These programs for the elderly were not tied to economic need. Congressman David Durenberger criticized this political situation, stating that while programs for poor children and for young families were cut, the government provided "free health care to elderly millionaires".
"Five really good reasons to hate millennials".
Longitudinal Study of American Youth – University Of Michigan.
Edited by Jacqueline Edmondson. ABC-CLIO
Viacom International Insights.
In the early 1950s, Hungarian photographer Robert Capa first used Generation X as the title for a photo-essay about young men and women growing up immediately following World War II. The term first appeared in print in a December 1952 issue of Holiday magazine announcing their upcoming publication of Capa's photo-essay. 
Longitudinal Study of American Youth – University of Michigan.
Senior Aaron McGruder's Edgy Hip-Hop Comic Gets Raves, but No Takers", Washington Post, 20 August 1997.
Com/style/punk-ma0000002806 "in both the U. In America, punk remained an underground sensation, eventually spawning the hardcore and indie-rock scenes of the '80s, but in the UK, it was a full-scale phenomenon. , the Sex Pistols were thought of as a serious threat to the well-being of the government and monarchy, but more importantly, they caused countless bands to form. "
Black Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary American.
Greg Kot, "Hip-Hop Below the Mainstream", Los Angeles Times, 19 September 2001.
Centre For Social Science Research.
"Just 20 years on, grunge seems like ancient history".
Gen X: A New Parent Generation". AASA – The School Superintendents Association.
"Reasonable People Disagree about the Post-Gen X, Pre-Millennial Generation".
They argue that those born between 1961 and 1964 are part of Generation X rather than the Baby Boomers because they are distinct from the Boomers in terms of cultural identity and shared historical experiences. 
"5 Reasons Marketers Have Largely Overlooked Generation X".
Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2016.
   As the 1990s and 2000s progressed, Gen X gained a reputation for entrepreneurship. In 1999, The New York Times dubbed them "Generation 1099", describing them as the "once pitied but now envied group of self-employed workers whose income is reported to the Internal Revenue Service not on a W-2 form, but on Form 1099".  In 2002, Time magazine published an article titled Gen Xers Aren't Slackers After All, reporting four out of five new businesses were the work of Gen Xers.
"The overlooked influence of Gen X".
The original punk rockers were late-period boomers eager to distance themselves from the supercilious upper end of their demographic, and their music, reflecting the dour economics of the late '70s, became a template for Generation X and the ensuing "post-punk" movement that eventually birthed grunge.
Cheo Hodari Coker, "'It's a Beautiful Feeling'", Los Angeles Times, 11 August 1996.
Journal of Current Issues in Research & Advertising.
   The time period of the Gen X childhood saw an increase in latchkey children, leading to the terminology of the "latchkey generation" for Generation X.    These latchkey children lacked adult supervision in the hours between the end of the school day and when a parent returned home from work in the evening, and for longer periods of time during the summer. Latchkey children became common among all socioeconomic demographics, but were particularly common among middle and upper class children.
The higher the educational attainment of the parents, the higher the odds the children of this time would be latchkey children, due to increased maternal participation in the workforce at a time before childcare options outside the home were widely available.       McCrindle Research Center described the cohort as "the first to grow up without a large adult presence, with both parents working", stating this led to Gen Xers being more peer-oriented than previous generations. 
American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U. 343
North Carolina and London: McFarland and Company.
"Why Generation X is Sparking a Renaissance in Entrepreneurship".
"America's Generations With Chuck Underwood - Generation X". Coker, "Slick Rick: Behind Bars", Rolling Stone, 9 March 1995.
"Generation X members are "active, balanced and happy". The Jury Expert – The Art and Science of Litigation Advocacy. The United Kingdom's Economic and Social Research Council described Generation X as "Thatcher's children" because the cohort grew up while Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990, "a time of social flux and transformation".
 Billy Idol had attributed the name of his band to the book Generation X, a 1965 book on popular youth culture written by two British journalists, Jane Deverson and Charles Hamblett.   Their use of the term appears to have no connection to Robert Capa's photo-essay. 
In 2001, sociologist Mike Males reported confidence and optimism common among the cohort saying "surveys consistently find 80% to 90% of Gen Xers self-confident and optimistic. "  In August 2001, Males wrote "these young Americans should finally get the recognition they deserve", praising the cohort and stating that "the permissively raised, universally deplored Generation X is the true 'great generation,' for it has braved a hostile social climate to reverse abysmal trends", describing them as the hardest-working group since the World War II generation, which was dubbed by Tom Brokaw as the Greatest Generation. He reported Gen Xers' entrepreneurial tendencies helped create the high-tech industry that fueled the 1990s economic recovery.
"Happy Birthday John Hughes: The Voice of My So-Called 'Lost Generation '".
  Coupland referenced Billy Idol's band Generation X in the 1987 article and again in 1989,  but Coupland has stated that
Today's Young Adults Have Fought Wars Fiercely, Reversed Unfortunate Social Trends and Are Proving Themselves to be Another 'Great Generation '". Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. In the US, they were described as the major heroes of the September 11 terrorist attacks by author William Strauss. The firefighters and police responding to the attacks were predominantly Generation Xers.
Additionally, the leaders of the passenger revolt on United Airlines Flight 93 were predominantly Gen Xers.    Author Neil Howe reported survey data showed Gen Xers were cohabitating and getting married in increasing numbers following the terrorists attacks, with Gen X survey respondents reporting they no longer wanted to live alone.  In October 2001, Seattle Post-Intelligencer wrote of Generation Xers: "now they could be facing the most formative events of their lives and their generation".
 The Greensboro News & Record reported Gen Xers "felt a surge of patriotism since terrorists struck" reporting many were responding to the crisis of the terrorist attacks by giving blood, working for charities, donating to charities, and by joining the military to fight The War on Terror.  The Jury Expert, a publication of The American Society of Trial Consultants, reported: "Gen X members responded to the terrorist attacks with bursts of patriotism and national fervor that surprised even themselves".  In midlife
By 1985, an estimated one to two million Americans were HIV positive. As the virus spread, at a time before effective treatments were available, a public panic ensued. Sex education programs in schools were adapted to address the AIDS epidemic which taught Gen X students that sex could kill you.
  Gen Xers were the first children to have access to computers in their homes and schools.  Generally, Gen Xers are the children of the Silent Generation and older Baby Boomers.   As young adults
Archived from the original on 16 January 2013.
"The next 20 years: How customer and workforce attitudes will evolve".
Stereotypes of Gen X young adults also included that they were "bleak, cynical, and disaffected". Such stereotypes prompted sociological research at Stanford University to study the accuracy of the characterization of Gen X young adults as cynical and disaffected. Using the national General Social Survey, the researchers compared answers to identical survey questions asked of 18–29-year-olds in three different time periods.
Additionally, they compared how older adults answered the same survey questions over time. The surveys showed 18–29-year-old Gen Xers did exhibit higher levels of cynicism and disaffection than previous cohorts of 18–29-year-olds surveyed; however, they also found that cynicism and disaffection had increased among all age groups surveyed over time, not just young adults, making this a period effect, not a cohort effect. In other words, adults of all ages were more cynical and disaffected in the 1990s, not just Generation X.
"Lost Generations? Wealth Building Among Young Americans" (PDF).
"Generation X gets really old: How do slackers have a midlife crisis?".
Andrew Pettie, "'Where rap went wrong'", The Daily Telegraph, 11 August 2005.
James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. Archived from the original on 24 October 2004.
"After September 11 Events Hand Generation X a 'Real Role to Play '".
"Study says Generation X is balanced and happy".
, some called Generation Xers the "baby bust" generation because of the drop in the birth rate following the baby boom. 
Continuum International Publishing Group. In this vein, Solondz' films, while set in the present, contain an array of objects and architectural styles that evoke Generation X's childhood and adolescence. Dawn (Heather Matarazzo) wears her hair tied up in a 1970s ponytail holder with large balls, despite the fact her brother works at a 1990 Macintosh computer, in a film that came out in 1996.
The birth control pill, introduced in the early 1960s, was one contributing factor of declining birth rates seen in the late 1960s and 70s. However, increased immigration partially offset declining birth rates and contributed to making Generation X an ethnically and culturally diverse demographic cohort.   Characteristics As children and adolescents
"Gen X women, young for their age".
New musicians embraced the DIY movement and began to create their own individual scenes with specific sounds. "
A 2010 Census report counted approximately 84 million people living in the U. Who are defined by birth years ranging from the early 1960s to the early 80s.
 In a 2012 article for the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, George Masnick wrote that the "Census counted 82.
The Harvard Center uses 1965 to 1984 to define Gen X so that Boomers, Xers, and Millennials "cover equal 20-year age spans".  Masnick concluded that immigration filled in any birth year deficits during low fertility years of the late 1960s and early 1970s. 
Slate, "PUNK ROCK," accessed 23 November 2018, http://www. Org/handbook/online/articles/xbp02. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
At the time it was published they wrote that there are approximately 88. 
Punk was ugly and ugly was true, no matter how many new choruses the boomers added to their song of self-praise. It was this perceived honesty that we, the nascent Generation X, feared and worshipped. But over time punk swelled into a Stalinistic doctrine of self-denial that stunted us.
The yuppies kept sucking, but by clinging to punk we started to suck too. " Other demographers and researchers use a wide range of dates to describe Generation X, with the beginning birth-year ranging from as early as 1960 [ citation needed] to as late as 1965,  and with the final birth year as late as 1984.   Due in part to the frequent birth-year overlap and resulting incongruence existing between attempts to define Generation X and Millennials, a number of individuals born in the late 1970s or early 1980s see themselves as being on the cusp "between" the two generations.
    Names given to those born on the Generation X/Millennial cusp years include Xennials, The Lucky Ones, Generation Catalano, and the Oregon Trail Generation.      Demographics United States
With God on Our Side: Towards a Transformational Theology of Rock and Roll.
"Measuring Crack Cocaine and Its Impact" (PDF). Harvard University Society of Fellows: 3, 66.
LAST UPDATED: 14 November 2018 https://www. Com/art/punk"Punk’s full impact came only after the success of Nirvana in 1991, coinciding with the ascendance of Generation X—a new, disaffected generation born in the 1960s, many members of which identified with punk’s charged, often contradictory mix of intelligence, simplicity, anger, and powerlessness.
" Generation X is the demographic cohort following the post–World War II baby boom, representing a generational change from the baby boomers. "Generation X's rebellious nature helped reinvent adulthood". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In the 1990s, media pundits and advertisers struggled to define the cohort, typically portraying them as "unfocused twentysomethings". A MetLife report noted: "media would portray them as the Friends generation: rather self-involved and perhaps aimless. "   In France, Gen Xers were sometimes referred to as 'Génération Bof' because of their tendency to use the word 'bof', which translated into English means 'whatever".
 Gen Xers were often portrayed as apathetic or as " slackers", a stereotype which was initially tied to Richard Linklater's comedic and essentially plotless 1991 film Slacker. After the film was released, "journalists and critics thought they put a finger on what was different about these young adults in that 'they were reluctant to grow up' and 'disdainful of earnest action'. "