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Where is Ireland ranked in education?

Ireland has 9 universities in the overall Times Higher Education World University Rankings. The highest-ranking university in Ireland is Trinity College Dublin, which is ranked at number 120.Study in Ireland | Times Higher Education (THE)

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. (Hot copy: an industry update)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Census Age and Sex Composition: 2010" (PDF). The book's title came not from Billy Idol's band, as many supposed, but from the final chapter of a funny sociological book on American class structure titled Class, by Paul Fussell. In his final chapter, Fussell named an "X" category of people who wanted to hop off the merry-go-round of status, money, and social climbing that so often frames modern existence.

[7] [4] Mosi Reeves, "Easy-Chair Rap", Village Voice, 29 January 2002. The Gen X childhood coincided with the sexual revolution, which Susan Gregory Thomas described in her book In Spite of Everything as confusing and frightening for children in cases where a parent would bring new sexual partners into their home. Thomas also discussed how divorce was different during the Gen X childhood, with the child having a limited or severed relationship with one parent following divorce, often the father, due to differing societal and legal expectations

. S states allowed for joint custody of children, which has since been adopted by all 50 states following a push for joint custody during the mid-1980s. [42] [43]
  • ^ Toch, Thomas (19 September 1984).

    "The Making of 'To Save Our Schools, To Save Our Children': A Conversation With Marshall Frady".

    Author Jeff Gordinier, in his 2008 book X Saves the World, defines Generation X as those born roughly between 1961 and 1977 but possibly as late as 1980. [21] Canadian author and professor David Foot divides the post-boomer generation into two groups: Generation X, born between 1960 and 1966; and the "Bust Generation", born between 1967 and 1979, In his book Boom Bust & Echo: How to Profit from the Coming Demographic Shift. [22] [23]

  • ^ Epstein, Leonora (17 July 2013).

    "22 Signs You're Stuck Between Gen X And Millennials".

    Will Hodgkinson, "Adventures on the wheels of steel", The Guardian, 19 September 2003.

  • ^ Foot, David (1996). Archived from the original on 29 January 2007
  • ^ "Engaging a cross-generational volunteer force" (PDF).

    Many researchers and demographers use dates which correspond to the fertility-patterns in the population, which results in a Generation X starting-date of 1965, such as Pew Research Center which uses a range of 1965–1980, [15] Australia's McCrindle Research Center which uses 1965–1979, [16] and Gallup which also uses 1965–1979. [17] PricewaterhouseCoopers, a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, describes Generation X employees as those born from 1965 to 1980. [18]

  • ^ Frith, Bek (23 February 2016).

    "Are generation X the UK's hardest workers?".

  • ^ Tasker, Yvonne (2010). Fifty Contemporary Film Directors.

  • ^ Punk, Encyclopedia Britannica, Jon Savage
  • ^ Ellin, Abby (15 August 1999). "Preludes; A Generation of Freelancers".
  • ^ a b Raphelson, Samantha (6 October 2014). "From GIs To Gen Z (Or Is It iGen?): How Generations Get Nicknames". Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe, who wrote several books on generations, including the 1993 book specifically on Generation X 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?, reported that Gen Xers were children at a time when society was less focused on children and more focused on adults.

    [37] Gen Xers were children during a time of increasing divorce rates, with divorce rates doubling in the mid-1960s, before peaking in 1980. [12] [38] [39] Strauss and Howe described a cultural shift where the long-held societal value of staying together for the sake of the children was replaced with a societal value of parental and individual self-actualization. Strauss wrote that society "moved from what Leslie Fiedler called a 1950s-era 'cult of the child' to what Landon Jones called a 1970s-era 'cult of the adult'.

    " [37] [40] The Generation Map, a report from Australia's McCrindle Research Center writes of Gen X children: "their Boomer parents were the most divorced generation in Australian history". [41]

  • ^ "Booknotes – Generations: The History of Americas Future". Archived from the original on 3 July 2016.

    Jon Miller at the Longitudinal Study of American Youth at the University of Michigan wrote that "Generation X refers to adults born between 1961 and 1981" and it "includes 84 million people".

  • ^ Fogarty, Lisa (7 January 2016). "3 Signs you're stuck between Gen X & Millennials".
  • ^ a b c d McCrindle, Mark. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2016.

    Gen Xers came of age or were children during the crack epidemic, which disproportionately impacted urban areas and also the African-American community in the US. Drug turf battles increased violent crime, and crack addiction impacted communities and families. Between 1984 and 1989, the homicide rate for black males aged 14 to 17 doubled in the US, and the homicide rate for black males aged 18 to 24 increased almost as much.

    The crack epidemic had a destabilizing impact on families with an increase in the number of children in foster care. [57] [58] Generation X was the first cohort to come of age with MTV and are sometimes called the MTV Generation. [59] [60] They experienced the emergence of punk rock, music videos, grunge, alternative rock and hip hop.

    [61] In South Africa, Gen Xers spent their formative years of the 1980s during the "hyper-politicized environment of the final years of apartheid". [53] In the US, Generation X was the first cohort to grow up post-integration. They were described in a marketing report by Specialty Retail as the kids who "lived the civil rights movement.

    " They were among the first children to be bused to attain integration in the public school system. In the 1990s, Strauss reported Gen Xers were "by any measure the least racist of today's generations". [40] [54] In the US, Title IX, which passed in 1972, provided increased athletic opportunities to Gen X girls in the public school setting.

    [55] In Russia, Generation Xers are referred to as "the last Soviet children", as the last children to come of age prior to the downfall of communism in their nation and prior to the fall of the Soviet Union. [16]

  • ^ a b c Hornblower, Margot (9 June 1997)
    . Politically, in the United States, the Gen X childhood coincided with a time when government funding tended to be diverted away from programs for children and often instead directed toward the elderly population, with cuts to Medicaid and programs for children and young families, and protection and expansion of Medicare and Social Security for the elderly population.

    One in five American children grew up in poverty during this time. These programs for the elderly were not tied to economic need. Congressman David Durenberger criticized this political situation, stating that while programs for poor children and for young families were cut, the government provided "free health care to elderly millionaires".

    [40] [56]

  • ^ White, Doug (23 December 2014). "What to Expect From Gen-X and Millennial Employees".
  • ^ Chatzky, Jean (31 March 2002). "Gen Xers Aren't Slackers After All".
  • ^ Ingraham, Christopher (5 May 2015).

    "Five really good reasons to hate millennials".

  • ^ Halkitis, Perry (2 February 2016)
    . "The Disease That Defined My Generation".
  • ^ Miller, Jon (Fall 2011). "The Generation X Report: Active, Balanced, and Happy: These Young Americans are not Bowling Alone" (PDF).

    Longitudinal Study of American Youth – University Of Michigan.

  • ^ a b "Alternative Goes Mainstream".
  • ^ "2015 State of the Startup".

  • ^ DiBlasi, Alex (2013). "Grunge" in Music in American Life: An Encyclopedia of the Songs, Styles, Stars and Stories that Shaped Our Culture, pp.

    Edited by Jacqueline Edmondson. ABC-CLIO

  • ^ Taylor, Anna (20 October 2016). "Gen X Today: The Documentary".

    Viacom International Insights.

  • ^ a b Coupland, Doug. The term Generation X has been used at various times to describe alienated youth.

    In the early 1950s, Hungarian photographer Robert Capa first used Generation X as the title for a photo-essay about young men and women growing up immediately following World War II. The term first appeared in print in a December 1952 issue of Holiday magazine announcing their upcoming publication of Capa's photo-essay. [1]

  • ^ "For Gen X, Midlife Is No Crisis".

  • ^ Thomas, Susan (21 October 2011). "All Apologies: Thank You for the 'Sorry '".
  • ^ a b Miller, Jon (Fall 2011)
    . "The Generation X Report: Active, Balanced, and Happy" (PDF).

    Longitudinal Study of American Youth – University of Michigan.

  • ^ Trenton, Thomas Norman (Fall 1997). "Generation X and Political Correctness: Ideological and Religious Transformation Among Students". Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. In Boom, Bust & Echo, Foot (1996: 18–22) divides youth into two groups: 'Generation X' born between 1960 and 1966 and the 'Bust Generation' born between 1967 and 1979.

    Senior Aaron McGruder's Edgy Hip-Hop Comic Gets Raves, but No Takers", Washington Post, 20 August 1997.

  • ^ Punk, AllMusic - https://www.

    Com/style/punk-ma0000002806 "in both the U. In America, punk remained an underground sensation, eventually spawning the hardcore and indie-rock scenes of the '80s, but in the UK, it was a full-scale phenomenon. , the Sex Pistols were thought of as a serious threat to the well-being of the government and monarchy, but more importantly, they caused countless bands to form. "

  • ^ "Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate: Women".
  • ^ Mukherji, Rohini (29 July 2014). "X or Y: A View from the Cusp".

    Black Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary American.

  • ^ a b GenXegesis: essays on alternative youth (sub)culture, John McAllister Ulrich and Andrea L. Harris, University of Wisconsin Press, 2003.
  • ^ William Strauss, Neil Howe (1991).
  • ^ Roni Sariq, "Crazy Wisdom Masters" Archived 23 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine, City Pages, 16 April 1997.

    Greg Kot, "Hip-Hop Below the Mainstream", Los Angeles Times, 19 September 2001.

  • ^ GUZMAN, RICHARD; Grunge, rap music movements of the early 1990s became Gen X’s soundtrack; | riguzman@scng. Com | Press Telegram PUBLISHED: 28 December 2015 at 9:25 pm | UPDATED: 1 September 2017 at 1:04 am; [1] "The Gen X soundtrack was more of a mixtape that ranged from feel-good dance and pop music, to punk, glam rock, new wave, alternative and rap.


  • ^ Thomas, Susan (2011). Andrew Drever, "Jungle Brothers still untamed", The Age [Australia], 24 October 2003.
  • ^ "Generation X Reacts to AIDS".

  • ^ Schenk, Jan (November 2010). "Locating generation X: Taste and identity in transitional South Africa" (PDF) (CSSR Working Paper No.

    Centre For Social Science Research.

  • ^ a b c McManus, Darragh (31 October 2008).

    "Just 20 years on, grunge seems like ancient history".

  • ^ Blakemore, Erin (9 November 2015). "The Latchkey Generation: How Bad Was It?".
  • ^ a b c Strauss, William. "What Future Awaits Today's Youth in the New Millennium?". Archived from the original on 8 August 2016.

    Gen X: A New Parent Generation". AASA – The School Superintendents Association.

  • ^ Thomas, Susan (22 October 2011). "All Apologies: Thank You for the 'Sorry '".
  • ^ Linhardt, Alex (10 June 2004). Album Reviews: Ultramagnetic MC's: Critical Beatdown.
  • ^ Stankorb, Sarah (25 September 2014).

    "Reasonable People Disagree about the Post-Gen X, Pre-Millennial Generation".

  • ^ Music Cultures in the United States: An Introduction. 359 Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe define Generation X as those born between 1961 and 1981.

    They argue that those born between 1961 and 1964 are part of Generation X rather than the Baby Boomers because they are distinct from the Boomers in terms of cultural identity and shared historical experiences. [19]

  • ^ a b c Gross, David (16 July 1990). "Living: Proceeding With Caution".
  • ^ a b c Klara, Robert (4 April 2016).

    "5 Reasons Marketers Have Largely Overlooked Generation X".

  • ^ Eames, David (6 March 2008).
  • ^ Bakari Kitwana, "The Cotton Club", Village Voice, 21 June 2005
  • ^ Corry, John (4 September 1984).
  • ^ Timmerman, John (29 July 2014). "How Hotels Can Engage Gen X and Millennial Guests".
  • Author Jeff Gordinier Discusses 2008 Book: "X Saves the World"
  • ^ "At Work, Gen X Want Flexibility and Fulfilment More Than a Corner Office".

  • ^ a b c d "The MetLife Study of Gen X: The MTV Generation Moves into Mid-Life" (PDF).

    Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2016.

  • ^ "Oldsters Get The Gen X Feeling".

  • ^ a b Howe, Neil (1993). 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?.
  • ^ Jon Caramanica, "Hip-Hop's Raiders of the Lost Archives", The New York Times, 26 June 2005. In 1990, Time magazine published an article titled "Living: Proceeding with Caution", which described those in their 20s as aimless and unfocused; however, in 1997, they published an article titled "Generation X Reconsidered", which retracted the previously reported negative stereotypes and reported positive accomplishments, citing Gen Xers' tendency to found technology start-ups and small businesses as well as Gen Xers' ambition, which research showed was higher among Gen X young adults than older generations.

    [64] [68] [69] As the 1990s and 2000s progressed, Gen X gained a reputation for entrepreneurship. In 1999, The New York Times dubbed them "Generation 1099", describing them as the "once pitied but now envied group of self-employed workers whose income is reported to the Internal Revenue Service not on a W-2 form, but on Form 1099". [70] In 2002, Time magazine published an article titled Gen Xers Aren't Slackers After All, reporting four out of five new businesses were the work of Gen Xers.

    [54] [71]

  • ^ Time, Magazine (9 June 1998). "My Generation Believes We Can Do Anything". Some researchers use dates similar to Strauss and Howe's such as the University of Michigan's Generation X Report, a quarterly research report from The Longitudinal Study of American Youth, which defines Generation X as those born between 1961 and 1981. [20]
  • ^ "The '80s were golden age of hip-hop".
  • ^ Iudica, David (12 September 2016)

    "The overlooked influence of Gen X".

  • ^ a b c Gordinier, Jeff (27 March 2008). X Saves the World: How Generation X Got the Shaft but Can Still Keep Everything from Sucking. ; THE CONFLICTED MUSICAL LEGACY OF GENERATION X, Hartford Courant, 6 November 2005; https://www. Com/news/connecticut/hc-xpm-2005-11-06-0511040334-story. Html "Punk was the first musical reaction to the classic-rock ethos of the Woodstock generation.

    The original punk rockers were late-period boomers eager to distance themselves from the supercilious upper end of their demographic, and their music, reflecting the dour economics of the late '70s, became a template for Generation X and the ensuing "post-punk" movement that eventually birthed grunge.

    Com/sites/default/files/2019-04/uk-state-of-work-report-nonmarketing. Pdf

  • ^ Holtz, Geoffrey (1995). Welcome to the Jungle: The Why Behind Generation X.

    Cheo Hodari Coker, "'It's a Beautiful Feeling'", Los Angeles Times, 11 August 1996.

  • ^ a b Markert, John (Fall 2004). "Demographics of Age: Generational and Cohort Confusion" (PDF).

    Journal of Current Issues in Research & Advertising.

  • ^ a b c Isabel Sawhill, PhD; John E. "Economic Mobility: Is the American Dream Alive and Well?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2013. Author William Strauss noted that around the time Coupland's 1991 novel was published the symbol "X" was prominent in popular culture, as the film Malcolm X was released in 1992, and that the name "Generation X" ended up sticking. The "X" refers to an unknown variable or to a desire not to be defined.

    [9] [10] [3] The time period of the Gen X childhood saw an increase in latchkey children, leading to the terminology of the "latchkey generation" for Generation X. [44] [45] [46] These latchkey children lacked adult supervision in the hours between the end of the school day and when a parent returned home from work in the evening, and for longer periods of time during the summer. Latchkey children became common among all socioeconomic demographics, but were particularly common among middle and upper class children.

    The higher the educational attainment of the parents, the higher the odds the children of this time would be latchkey children, due to increased maternal participation in the workforce at a time before childcare options outside the home were widely available

    . [45] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] McCrindle Research Center described the cohort as "the first to grow up without a large adult presence, with both parents working", stating this led to Gen Xers being more peer-oriented than previous generations. [41]
  • ^ Gina Misiroglu.

    American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U. 343

  • ^ a b "Generation X".

  • ^ Hanson, Peter (2002). The Cinema of Generation X: A Critical Study of Films and Directors.

    North Carolina and London: McFarland and Company.

  • ^ Morley Winograd; Michael Hais (2012)

    "Why Generation X is Sparking a Renaissance in Entrepreneurship".

    "America's Generations With Chuck Underwood - Generation X". Coker, "Slick Rick: Behind Bars", Rolling Stone, 9 March 1995.

  • ^ Coupland, Douglas (September 1987).

  • ^ "Volunteering in the United States" (PDF). Bureau of Labor Statistics – U. Douglas Coupland popularized the term Generation X in his 1991 novel Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture. Coker, "KRS-One: Krs-One", Rolling Stone, 16 November 1995.
  • ^ "Financial Security and Mobility".
  • ^ "Millennials overtake Baby Boomers as America's largest generation".
  • ^ a b c Keene, Douglas (29 November 2011).

    "Generation X members are "active, balanced and happy". The Jury Expert – The Art and Science of Litigation Advocacy. The United Kingdom's Economic and Social Research Council described Generation X as "Thatcher's children" because the cohort grew up while Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990, "a time of social flux and transformation".

    [52] Billy Idol had attributed the name of his band to the book Generation X, a 1965 book on popular youth culture written by two British journalists, Jane Deverson and Charles Hamblett. [2] [8] Their use of the term appears to have no connection to Robert Capa's photo-essay. [1]

  • ^ "The Breakfast Club".

    In 2001, sociologist Mike Males reported confidence and optimism common among the cohort saying "surveys consistently find 80% to 90% of Gen Xers self-confident and optimistic. " [72] In August 2001, Males wrote "these young Americans should finally get the recognition they deserve", praising the cohort and stating that "the permissively raised, universally deplored Generation X is the true 'great generation,' for it has braved a hostile social climate to reverse abysmal trends", describing them as the hardest-working group since the World War II generation, which was dubbed by Tom Brokaw as the Greatest Generation. He reported Gen Xers' entrepreneurial tendencies helped create the high-tech industry that fueled the 1990s economic recovery.

    [72] [73]

  • ^ Thomas, Susan (9 July 2011).

    "Happy Birthday John Hughes: The Voice of My So-Called 'Lost Generation '".

  • ^ Dulaney, Josh (27 December 2015). "A Generation Stuck in the Middle Turns 50". The term acquired its contemporary application after the release of Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, a 1991 novel written by Canadian author Douglas Coupland. [2] [3] In 1987, Coupland had written a piece in Vancouver Magazine titled "Generation X" which was "the seed of what went on to become the book".

    [4] [5] Coupland referenced Billy Idol's band Generation X in the 1987 article and again in 1989, [6] but Coupland has stated that

  • ^ Taylor, Paul (5 June 2014). "Generation X: America's neglected 'middle child '". Archived from the original on 2 February 2010.
  • ^ Reddy, Patrick (10 February 2002). "Generation X Reconsidered; 'Slackers' No More.

    Today's Young Adults Have Fought Wars Fiercely, Reversed Unfortunate Social Trends and Are Proving Themselves to be Another 'Great Generation '". Archived from the original on 11 September 2016. In the US, they were described as the major heroes of the September 11 terrorist attacks by author William Strauss. The firefighters and police responding to the attacks were predominantly Generation Xers.

    Additionally, the leaders of the passenger revolt on United Airlines Flight 93 were predominantly Gen Xers. [68] [74] [75] Author Neil Howe reported survey data showed Gen Xers were cohabitating and getting married in increasing numbers following the terrorists attacks, with Gen X survey respondents reporting they no longer wanted to live alone. [76] In October 2001, Seattle Post-Intelligencer wrote of Generation Xers: "now they could be facing the most formative events of their lives and their generation".

    [77] The Greensboro News & Record reported Gen Xers "felt a surge of patriotism since terrorists struck" reporting many were responding to the crisis of the terrorist attacks by giving blood, working for charities, donating to charities, and by joining the military to fight The War on Terror. [78] The Jury Expert, a publication of The American Society of Trial Consultants, reported: "Gen X members responded to the terrorist attacks with bursts of patriotism and national fervor that surprised even themselves". [68] In midlife

  • ^ Strong, Catherine.


  • ^ a b Ellis, David (25 May 2007).
  • ^ a b Wilson, Carl (4 August 2011). The emergence of AIDS coincided with Gen X's adolescence, with the disease first clinically observed in the United States in 1981.

    By 1985, an estimated one to two million Americans were HIV positive

    . As the virus spread, at a time before effective treatments were available, a public panic ensued. Sex education programs in schools were adapted to address the AIDS epidemic which taught Gen X students that sex could kill you.

    [62] [63] Gen Xers were the first children to have access to computers in their homes and schools. [41] Generally, Gen Xers are the children of the Silent Generation and older Baby Boomers. [21] [41] As young adults

  • ^ "Generation X not so special: Malaise, cynicism on the rise for all age groups".
  • ^ a b c Masnick, George (28 November 2012). Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies.

  • ^ "Volunteering and Civic Life in America: Generation X Volunteer Rates". Corporation for National and Community Service.

    Archived from the original on 16 January 2013.

  • ^ Howe, Neil (June 2007).

    "The next 20 years: How customer and workforce attitudes will evolve".

    Stereotypes of Gen X young adults also included that they were "bleak, cynical, and disaffected". Such stereotypes prompted sociological research at Stanford University to study the accuracy of the characterization of Gen X young adults as cynical and disaffected. Using the national General Social Survey, the researchers compared answers to identical survey questions asked of 18–29-year-olds in three different time periods.

    Additionally, they compared how older adults answered the same survey questions over time. The surveys showed 18–29-year-old Gen Xers did exhibit higher levels of cynicism and disaffection than previous cohorts of 18–29-year-olds surveyed; however, they also found that cynicism and disaffection had increased among all age groups surveyed over time, not just young adults, making this a period effect, not a cohort effect. In other words, adults of all ages were more cynical and disaffected in the 1990s, not just Generation X.

    [66] [67]

  • ^ a b "Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate: Men".
  • ^ Steuerle, Eugene; Signe-Mary McKernan; Caroline Ratcliffe; Sisi Zhang (2013).

    "Lost Generations? Wealth Building Among Young Americans" (PDF).

  • ^ Neil Howe on Gen X and 9/11.

  • ^ Koidin, Michelle (11 October 2001). "Events Hand Generation X A 'Real Role to Play '"
  • ^ Lipton, Lauren (10 November 1911). "The Shaping of a Shapeless Generation : Does MTV Unify a Group Known Otherwise For its Sheer Diversity?".
  • ^ ScrIibner, Sara (11 August 2013).

    "Generation X gets really old: How do slackers have a midlife crisis?".

    Andrew Pettie, "'Where rap went wrong'", The Daily Telegraph, 11 August 2005.

  • ^ a b Garvey, Ana (5 May 2015). "The Biggest (And Best) Difference Between Millennial and My Generation". Author Neil Howe noted the delay in naming this demographic cohort saying, "Over 30 years after their birthday, they didn't have a name. " Previously, the cohort had been referred to as Post-Boomers, Baby Busters, New Lost Generation, latchkey kids, MTV Generation, and the 13th Generation (the 13th generation since American independence). [12] [9] [6] [13] [14] Birth dates
  • ^ a b Isaksen, Judy L.

    James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. Archived from the original on 24 October 2004.

  • ^ Koidin, Michelle (11 October 2001).

    "After September 11 Events Hand Generation X a 'Real Role to Play '".

  • ^ Dawson, Alene (27 October 2011).

    "Study says Generation X is balanced and happy".

  • ^ Jake Coyle of Associated Press, "Spin magazine picks Radiohead CD as best", published in USA Today, 19 June 2005.
  • ^ a b "The original Generation X".
  • ^ "Long-term Survey Reveals Gen Xers Are Active, Balanced and Happy".

  • ^ 'Punk Rock - An Oral History', by John Robb.
  • Gen X Today 2016 documentary by Viacom International Media Networks In the U.

    , some called Generation Xers the "baby bust" generation because of the drop in the birth rate following the baby boom. [11]

  • ^ Russell, Dominique (2010).

    Continuum International Publishing Group. In this vein, Solondz' films, while set in the present, contain an array of objects and architectural styles that evoke Generation X's childhood and adolescence. Dawn (Heather Matarazzo) wears her hair tied up in a 1970s ponytail holder with large balls, despite the fact her brother works at a 1990 Macintosh computer, in a film that came out in 1996.

  • ^ Green, Tony, in Wang, Oliver (ed. ) Classic Material, Toronto: ECW Press, 2003. "Why '80s Babies Are Different Than Other Millennials".
  • ^ Neil Howe & William Strauss discuss the Silent Generation on Chuck Underwood's Generations.

    The birth control pill, introduced in the early 1960s, was one contributing factor of declining birth rates seen in the late 1960s and 70s. However, increased immigration partially offset declining birth rates and contributed to making Generation X an ethnically and culturally diverse demographic cohort. [12] [25] Characteristics As children and adolescents

  • ^ "Golden Age".
  • ^ Dawson, Alene (25 September 2011).

    "Gen X women, young for their age".

  • ^ "Gen X's Unconventional Approach To Sex, Friendship and Family"
  • ^ "NSF funds launch of a new LSAY 7th grade cohort in 2015 NIH-NIA fund continued study of original LSAY students".
  • ^ The History and Evolution of Punk Rock Music, Updated 10 April 2018, ThoughtCo https://www. Com/history-of-punk-rock-2803345 "By the late '70s, punk had finished its beginning and had emerged as a solid musical force. With its rise in popularity, punk began to split into numerous sub-genres.

    New musicians embraced the DIY movement and began to create their own individual scenes with specific sounds. "

  • ^ Jackson, Ronald L.

    A 2010 Census report counted approximately 84 million people living in the U. Who are defined by birth years ranging from the early 1960s to the early 80s.

    [34] In a 2012 article for the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, George Masnick wrote that the "Census counted 82.

    The Harvard Center uses 1965 to 1984 to define Gen X so that Boomers, Xers, and Millennials "cover equal 20-year age spans". [24] Masnick concluded that immigration filled in any birth year deficits during low fertility years of the late 1960s and early 1970s. [24]

  • ^ Handbook of Texas Online, John H.

    Slate, "PUNK ROCK," accessed 23 November 2018, http://www. Org/handbook/online/articles/xbp02. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

  • ^ Leeming, Robert (19 February 2016). "Generation X-ers found to be the best workers in the UK".
  • ^ a b c d "The Generation Map" (PDF)
  • Generation X Goes Global: Mapping a Youth Culture in Motion, Christine Henseler, Ed. ; 2012 Scott Thill, "Whiteness Visible" AlterNet, 6 May 2005.

  • ^ "A Teacher's Guide to Generation X".

  • ^ Jenkins, Craig (11 April 2017). "Pearl Jam Might Not Be Cool, But That Doesn't Mean They Aren't Great".
  • ^ a b "Demographic Profile - America's Gen X" (PDF).
  • ^ Per Coker, Hodgkinson, Drever, Thill, O'Neal Parker and Sariq above. Additionally: In their 1991 book "Generations" authors Neil Howe and William Strauss, used 1961 to 1981 for Gen X birth years.

    At the time it was published they wrote that there are approximately 88. [36]

  • ^ a b Males, Mike (26 August 2001). "The True 'Great Generation '".
  • ^ "What's The Defining Moment Of Your Generation?".

  • ^ "Thatcher's children: the lives of Generation X". Economic and Social Research Council.
  • ^ "Yuppies, Beware: Here Comes Generation X".
  • ^ Shafrir, Doree (28 March 2016).

  • ^ Roderick,John; Punk Rock Is Bullshit: How a Toxic Social Movement Poisoned Our Culture, Seattle Weekly; Wednesday, 27 February, 2013 5:54pm; http://www. Com/music/for-those-of-us-who-grew-up-in-the-shadow-of-the/ "For those of us who grew up in the shadow of the baby boom, force-fed the misremembered vainglory of Woodstock long after most hippies had become coked-out, craven yuppies on their way to becoming paranoid neo-cons, punk rock provided a corrective dose of hard truth.

    Punk was ugly and ugly was true, no matter how many new choruses the boomers added to their song of self-praise. It was this perceived honesty that we, the nascent Generation X, feared and worshipped. But over time punk swelled into a Stalinistic doctrine of self-denial that stunted us.

    The yuppies kept sucking, but by clinging to punk we started to suck too. " Other demographers and researchers use a wide range of dates to describe Generation X, with the beginning birth-year ranging from as early as 1960 [ citation needed] to as late as 1965, [16] and with the final birth year as late as 1984. [24] [25] Due in part to the frequent birth-year overlap and resulting incongruence existing between attempts to define Generation X and Millennials, a number of individuals born in the late 1970s or early 1980s see themselves as being on the cusp "between" the two generations.

    [26] [27] [28] [29] Names given to those born on the Generation X/Millennial cusp years include Xennials, The Lucky Ones, Generation Catalano, and the Oregon Trail Generation. [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] Demographics United States

  • ^ Klondin, Michelle (11 October 2001). "AFTER SEPTEMBER 11 EVENTS HAND GENERATION X A 'REAL ROLE TO PLAY '". "Gen-X: The Ignored Generation?".
  • ^ Richard Linklater, Slacker, St Martins Griffin, 1992
  • ^ a b Felix-Jager, Steven (2017).

    With God on Our Side: Towards a Transformational Theology of Rock and Roll.


  • Generation X’s journey from jaded to sated – Salon, 1 October 2013
  • ^ Coupland, Douglas (June 1995). Scott Mervis, "From Kool Herc to 50 Cent, the story of rap – so far", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 15 February 2004.
  • ^ Fryer, Roland (April 2006).

    "Measuring Crack Cocaine and Its Impact" (PDF). Harvard University Society of Fellows: 3, 66.

    LAST UPDATED: 14 November 2018 https://www. Com/art/punk"Punk’s full impact came only after the success of Nirvana in 1991, coinciding with the ascendance of Generation X—a new, disaffected generation born in the 1960s, many members of which identified with punk’s charged, often contradictory mix of intelligence, simplicity, anger, and powerlessness.

    " Generation X is the demographic cohort following the post–World War II baby boom, representing a generational change from the baby boomers. "Generation X's rebellious nature helped reinvent adulthood". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    In the 1990s, media pundits and advertisers struggled to define the cohort, typically portraying them as "unfocused twentysomethings". A MetLife report noted: "media would portray them as the Friends generation: rather self-involved and perhaps aimless. " [59] [64] In France, Gen Xers were sometimes referred to as 'Génération Bof' because of their tendency to use the word 'bof', which translated into English means 'whatever".

    [16] Gen Xers were often portrayed as apathetic or as " slackers", a stereotype which was initially tied to Richard Linklater's comedic and essentially plotless 1991 film Slacker. After the film was released, "journalists and critics thought they put a finger on what was different about these young adults in that 'they were reluctant to grow up' and 'disdainful of earnest action'. " [64] [65]

  • ^ a b Coupland, Douglas (2 September 2007).

    School Of Dragons All Quests