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. It is part of the larger problem process that includes problem shaping and problem solving. Problem finding requires intellectual vision and insight into what is missing.
This involves the application of creativity. Q [ edit ]
Programmed instruction: A field first studied extensively by the behaviorist B. It consists of teaching through small lessons, where each lesson must be mastered in order to go on to the next. Students work through the programmed material by themselves at their own speed.
After each step, they are presented with a question to test their comprehension, then are immediately shown the correct answer or given additional information.
Public school: The term has different (and in some cases contradictory) meanings due to regional differences. Post-graduate student receiving a degree.
Problem-based learning: ( PBL) A didactic concept of " active learning" in tertiary education, but is currently being adapted for use in K–12 education. The defining characteristics of PBL are: learning is driven by messy, open-ended problems; students work in small collaborative groups; and "teachers" are not required, the process uses "facilitators" of learning.
Propositional knowledge: (or declarative knowledge) Knowledge that some proposition is either true or false.
This distinguishes propositional knowledge from know-how or procedural knowledge, which is the knowledge of how to perform some task. This article discusses propositional knowledge from a variety of perspectives, including philosophy, science, and history.
Quiz: A form of game or puzzle in which the players (as individuals or in teams), attempt to answer questions correctly.
A quiz usually is a form of student assessment, but often has fewer questions of lesser difficulty and requires less time for completion than a test.
Predictive power: (of a scientific theory) Refers to its ability to generate testable predictions. Theories with strong predictive power are highly valued, because the predictions can often encourage the falsification of the theory.
The concept of predictive power differs from explanatory or descriptive power (where phenomena that are already known are retrospectively explained by a given theory) in that it allows a prospective test of theoretical understanding.
Professional certification: ( trade certification, or professional designation often called simply certification or qualification) A designation earned by a person to certify that he is qualified to perform a job. Certification indicates that the individual has a specific knowledge, skills, or abilities in the view of the certifying body.
Professional certifications are awarded by professional bodies and corporations. The difference between licensure and certification is licensure is required by law, whereas certification is generally voluntary. Sometimes the word certification is used for licensure.
Preschool education: See Nursery school.
Public education: Schooling provided for the general public by the government, whether national or local, and paid for by taxes, which leads to it often being called state education. Schools provided under such a system are called public schools in many countries, but in England the term "public school" refers to an elite of privately funded independent schools which had their origins in medieval schools funded by charity to provide education for the poor.
Pygmalion effect: (or Rosenthal effect) refers to situations in which students perform better than other students simply because they are expected to do so.
Postgraduate education: (or Quaternary education) The fourth-stage educational level, and follows the completion of an undergraduate degree at a college or university. Graduate school is an example of quaternary education; some consider masters-level degrees as part of tertiary education; some consider postdoctoral positions to be quaternary education while others consider them to be jobs.
Primary education: (or elementary education) Consists of the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to receive primary education (though in many jurisdictions it is permissible for parents to provide it). Primary education generally begins when children are four to seven years of age.
The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about twelve years of age ( adolescence); some educational systems have separate middle schools for that period. Public education often involves the following: public funding; compulsory student attendance; state certification of teachers and curricula; and testing and national standards. Accordingly, students are encouraged to take responsibility for their group and organise and direct the learning process with support from a tutor or instructor.
Advocates of PBL claim it can be used to enhance content knowledge and foster the development of communication, problem-solving, and self-directed learning skill. R [ edit ]
What is the difference between knowledge and beliefs? A belief is an internal thought or memory which exists in one's mind. Most people accept that for a belief to be knowledge it must be, at least, true and justified.
The Gettier problem in philosophy is the question of whether there are any other requirements before a belief can be accepted as knowledge.
Problem shaping: Revising a question so that the solution process can begin or continue. It is part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding and problem solving.
Problem shaping (or problem framing) often involves the application of critical thinking.
Procedural knowledge: (or know-how) The knowledge of how to perform some task. Know-how is different from other kinds of knowledge such as propositional knowledge in that it can be directly applied to a task.
Procedural knowledge about solving problems differs from propositional knowledge about problem solving. For example, in some legal systems, this knowledge or know-how has been considered the intellectual property of a company, and can be transferred when that company is purchased.
Post-secondary education: Any form of education that is taken after first attending a secondary school, such as a high school.
The purpose of a post-secondary education can be to receive vocational education and training or to prepare for professions or scientific/academic careers through higher education.
Problem solving: Forms part of thinking. It occurs if an organism or an artificial intelligence system does not know how to proceed from a given state to a desired goal state.
It is part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding and problem shaping.