What can you do with a human resources certificate?
.  States passed laws to make schooling compulsory between 1852 ( Massachusetts) and 1917 ( Mississippi). They also used federal funding designated by the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Acts of 1862 and 1890 to set up land grant colleges specializing in agriculture and engineering.
By 1870, every state had free elementary schools,  albeit only in urban centers. According to a 2018 study in the Economic Journal, states were more likely to adopt compulsory education laws during the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1914) if they hosted more European immigrants with lower exposure to civic values. Classroom Management: Sound Theory and Effective Practice.
"State Education Trends: Academic Performance and Spending over the Past 40 Years" (PDF).
Some students choose to attend a community college for two years prior to further study at another college or university. In most states, community colleges are operated either by a division of the state university or by local special districts subject to guidance from a state agency. Community colleges may award Associate of Arts (AA) or Associate of Science (AS) degree after two years.
Those seeking to continue their education may transfer to a four-year college or university (after applying through a similar admissions process as those applying directly to the four-year institution, see articulation). Some community colleges have automatic enrollment agreements with a local four-year college, where the community college provides the first two years of study and the university provides the remaining years of study, sometimes all on one campus. The community college awards the associate degree, and the university awards the bachelor's and master's degrees.
[ citation needed]
Pre-kindergarten 8th grade Formal education in the U. Is divided into a number of distinct educational stages.
Most children enter the public education system around ages five or six. Children are assigned into year groups known as grades.
"Student Loan Debt Statistics in 2018: A$1.
Fourth year: "senior year"
Rury; Education and Social Change: Themes in the History of American Schooling.
Online version There is still limited research that has been conducted in the United States on the effects of placing immigrant students in a specific grade based on birthday cut off dates. In a study about Thailand's education policy on children of migrants, Thai schools often required migrant students to be proficient in the Thai language and to have gone through a learning center before enrolling into a public school.  If a student was younger than 7, they would be placed in kindergarten, and if they were older, they would be placed in a first grade class.
 Therefore, students that were 15 could still enroll as a first grader. The purpose for these methods was to ensure that migrant students were better prepared to start school, but it did cause some issues for both the student and the teachers. The study found that even though older students placed in first grade classrooms were more obedient, the students had trouble connecting with their classmates and teacher had to address them differently due to their age.
 Thai public schools attempted to address this issue by some implementing a rule that a student could not be older than 9 to enroll, but this led to learning centers not given recommendations to public school for older students.  More research is needed in order to better understand the effects of grade placement in immigrant students. Implementation of LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum involves both curriculum decisions and harnessing teachable moments in the classroom. Showed that teachers often failed to intervene in LGBTQ-bullying.  Compulsory education
According to a 2005 report from the OECD, the United States is tied for first place with Switzerland when it comes to annual spending per student on its public schools, with each of those two countries spending more than $11,000.  However, the United States is ranked 37th in the world in education spending as a percentage of gross domestic product. All but seven of the leading countries are developing countries; ranked high because of a low GDP.
Anthropology & Education Quarterly. The politics of school reform, 1870–1940.
"Goals for the Common Good: Exploring the Impact of Education. " Measure of America and United Way Worldwide.
Journal of Research on Christian Education. In the company of educated women: A history of women and higher education in America. : Philosophical and practical reflections on education, teaching, educational psychology, and the training of teachers.
 Education of students with special needs [ edit ] Senior/ 12th grade Freshman/ 9th grade
The American school year traditionally begins at the end of August or early in September, after a traditional summer vacation or break. Children customarily advance together from one grade to the next as a single cohort or "class" upon reaching the end of each school year in late May or early June.
Anderson, The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860–1935 (University of North Carolina Press, 1988).
"The Christian Day School Movement".
Culturally-responsive curriculum attempts to break down the dominant cultural bias that often pervades curriculum and instruction. Similar to the anti-bias approach, culturally-responsive curriculum is intended to help students and teachers "recognize the connections between ethnicity, gender, religion, and social class, and power, privilege, prestige, and opportunity. " Culturally-responsive curriculum specifically responds to the cultural needs of students as learners in the classroom.
"Corporal punishment in US schools". World Corporal Punishment Research.
This is especially common in technical fields, such as engineering. The five-year period often includes one or more periods of internship with an employer in the chosen field.
"Brevard's new literacy crusade:United Way".
In the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, 27 of the top 50 universities, and 72 institutions of the top 200, are located within the United States.  The US has thereby more than twice as many universities represented in the top 200 as does the country with the next highest number, the United Kingdom, which has 29. A small percentage of students who apply to these schools gain admission.
This results in many minority children being born into low socioeconomic backgrounds, which in turn affects educational opportunities.  During World War II, enrollment in high schools and colleges plummeted as many high school and college students—and teachers—dropped out to enlist or take war jobs.   
"Making nurse education LGBT-Friendly". ; Burdge, Hilary; Licona, Adela C.
"Students' Perspectives on LGBTQ-Inclusive Curriculum". Equity & Excellence in Education.
"Top Colleges Take More Blacks, But Which Ones?".
Variations [ edit ]
Higher education 15–16
Over 85 percent of the adult population have completed high school and 27 percent have received a bachelor's degree or higher. The average salary for college or university graduates is greater than $51,000, exceeding the national average of those without a high school diploma by more than $23,000, according to a 2005 study by the U. 
Archived from the original (PDF) on September 4, 2015.
The United States is one of the very few developed countries where corporal punishment is officially permitted and practiced in its public schools, although the practice has been banned in an increasing number of states beginning in the 1970s. The punishment virtually always consists of spanking the buttocks of a student with a paddle in a punishment known as " paddling. "  Students can be physically punished from kindergarten to the end of high school, meaning that even adults who have reached the age of majority are sometimes spanked by school officials.
 Although uncommon relative to the overall U. Student population, more than 167,000 students were paddled in the 2011–2012 school year in American public schools.
 Virtually all paddling in public schools occurs in the Southern United States, however, with 70% of paddled students living in just five states: Mississippi, Texas, Alabama, Arkansas, and Georgia.  The practice has been on a steady decline in American schools.  School safety and security [ edit ] Main article: Sex education in the United States The 2010 unemployment rate for high school graduates was 10.
8%; the rate for college graduates was 4. Recent allegations take the perspective of employers who demand more vocational training.
Voters in both major parties have been critical of the Common Core initiative.  Affirmative action [ edit ]
In 1995, the US was tied for first in college graduation; it now is 14th.
Archived from the original on October 31, 2006. 5th grade
Receive some form of sex education at least once between grades 7 and 12; many schools begin addressing some topics as early as grades 4 or 5.  However, what students learn varies widely, because curriculum decisions are so decentralized. Many states have laws governing what is taught in sex education classes or allowing parents to opt out.
Some state laws leave curriculum decisions to individual school districts.  6–7
In sum, McKinsey's report suggests, "These educational gaps impose on the United States the economic equivalent of a permanent national recession. "  Aside from these aforementioned schools, academic reputations vary widely among the 'middle-tier' of American schools, (and even among academic departments within each of these schools. ) Most public and private institutions fall into this 'middle' range.
Some institutions feature honors colleges or other rigorous programs that challenge academically exceptional students, who might otherwise attend a 'top-tier' college.   Aware of the status attached to the perception of the college that they attend, students often apply to a range of schools. Some apply to a relatively prestigious school with a low acceptance rate, gambling on the chance of acceptance but, as a backup, also apply to a safety school.
 The largest public school system in the United States is in New York City, where more than one million students are taught in 1,200 separate public schools. Because of its immense size – there are more students in the system than residents in the eight smallest US states – the New York City public school system is nationally influential in determining standards and materials, such as textbooks. [ citation needed]
Cambridge, Massachusetts: 2008. The poor performance has pushed public and private efforts such as the No Child Left Behind Act. In addition, the ratio of college-educated adults entering the workforce to general population (33%) is slightly below the mean of other [ which?] developed countries (35%)  and rate of participation of the labor force in continuing education is high.
 A 2000s (decade) study by Jon Miller of Michigan State University concluded that "A slightly higher proportion of American adults qualify as scientifically literate than European or Japanese adults". 
"Educational access and the state: Historical continuities and discontinuities in racial inequality in american education.
Institute for Children, Poverty & Homelessness.
American higher education: A history.
; reprinted essays from History of Education Quarterly
Network for Education Information: U. 13–14 In 1823, the Reverend Samuel Read Hall founded the first normal school, the Columbian School in Concord, Vermont,   aimed at improving the quality of the burgeoning common school system by producing more qualified teachers. See also: Special education Public and private schools [ edit ] Rural schools struggle with funding concerns.
State funding sources often favor wealthier districts. The state establishes a minimum flat amount deemed "adequate" to educate a child based on equalized assessed value of property taxes. This favors wealthier districts with a much larger tax base.
This, combined with the history of slow payment in the state, leaves rural districts searching for funds. Lack of funding leads to limited resources for teachers. Resources that directly relate to funding include access to high-speed internet, online learning programs and advanced course offerings.
 These resources can enhance a student's learning opportunities, but may not be available to everyone if a district cannot afford to offer specific programs. One study found that school districts spend less efficiently in areas in which they face little or no competition from other public schools, in large districts, and in areas in which residents are poor or less educated.   Some public schools are experimenting with recruiting teachers from developing countries in order to fill the teacher shortage, as U. Citizens with college degrees are turning away from the demanding, low paid profession.  Judicial intervention [ edit ] Senior high
American Education: The Colonial Experience, 1607–1783. (1970); American Education: The National Experience, 1783–1876. (1980); American Education: The Metropolitan Experience, 1876–1980 (1990); standard 3 vol detailed scholarly history
The American people are heavily divided over the issue. Over 80% of polled parents agreed with the statement "Sex education in school makes it easier for me to talk to my child about sexual issues," while under 17% agreed with the statement that their children were being exposed to "subjects I don't think my child should be discussing. " 10 percent believed that their children's sexual education class forced them to discuss sexual issues "too early.
" On the other hand, 49 percent of the respondents (the largest group) were "somewhat confident" that the values taught in their children's sex ed classes were similar to those taught at home, and 23 percent were less confident still. (The margin of error was plus or minus 4.
)  Ages vary
The Higher Education Amendments of 1972 made changes to the Pell Grants. The 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) required all public schools accepting federal funds to provide equal access to education and one free meal a day for children with physical and mental disabilities. The 1983 National Commission on Excellence in Education report, famously titled A Nation at Risk, touched off a wave of local, state, and federal reform efforts, but by 1990 the country still spent only 2 percent of its budget on education, compared with 30 percent on support for the elderly.
 In 1990, the EHA was replaced with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which placed more focus on students as individuals, and also provided for more post-high school transition services. In 2010, the Texas Board of Education passed more than 100 amendments to the curriculum standards, affecting history, sociology and economics courses to 'add balance' given that academia was 'skewed too far to the left'.  One specific result of these amendments is to increase education on Moses' influences on the founding of the United States, going as far as calling him a "founding father".
This allows for comparison of school districts within a state.  In 2010, American students rank 17th in the world. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development says that this is due to focusing on the low end of performers.
All of the recent gains have been made, deliberately, at the low end of the socioeconomic scale and among the lowest achievers. The country has been outrun, the study says, by other nations because the US has not done enough to encourage the highest achievers.  The United States is one of three OECD countries where the government spends more on schools in rich neighborhoods than in poor neighborhoods, with the others being Turkey and Israel.
Education System State by State. Kindergarten Public school systems are supported by a combination of local, state, and federal government funding.
Because a large portion of school revenues come from local property taxes, public schools vary widely in the resources they have available per student. Class size also varies from one district to another. Curriculum decisions in public schools are made largely at the local and state levels; the federal government has limited influence.
In most districts, a locally elected school board runs schools. The school board appoints an official called the superintendent of schools to manage the schools in the district. Of students who were freshmen in 2005 seeking bachelor's degrees at public institutions, 32% took four years, 12% took five years, 6% took six years, and 43% did not graduate within six years.
The numbers for private non-profit institutions were 52% in four, 10% in five, 4% in six, and 35% failing to graduate.
Lindseth, Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the funding-achievement puzzle in America's public schools (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0691130002)
American Civil Liberties Union.
 Cost [ edit ] Overall the households and demographics featuring the highest educational attainment in the United States are also among those with the highest household income and wealth. Thus, while the population of the US is becoming increasingly educated on all levels, a direct link between income and educational attainment remains.
"Town & Gown Relations: A Handbook of Best Practices," McFarland and Company, Inc. , Publisher, Jefferson, North Carolina, USA, and London, England (UK)(2013).
"What International Test Scores Tell Us.
17–18 In addition to its economic impact, social science provides evidence that the level of educational attainment of a community also has quantifiable impacts on many aspects of well-being, including life expectancy, low birthweight rates, crime, and political engagement.  Behavior [ edit ]
Obama's $800 billion stimulus package included $100 billion for public schools, which every state used to protect its education budget. In terms of sponsoring innovation, however, Obama and his Education Secretary Arne Duncan pursued K-12 education reform through the Race to the Top grant program. With over $15 billion of grants at stake, 34 states quickly revised their education laws according to the proposals of advanced educational reformers.
In the competition, points were awarded for allowing charter schools to multiply, for compensating teachers on a merit basis including student test scores, and for adopting higher educational standards. There were incentives for states to establish college and career-ready standards, which in practice meant adopting the Common Core State Standards Initiative that had been developed on a bipartisan basis by the National Governors Association, and the Council of Chief State School Officers. The criteria were not mandatory, they were incentives to improve opportunities to get a grant.
Most states revised their laws accordingly, even though they realized it was unlikely they would when a highly competitive new grant. Race to the Top had strong bipartisan support, with centrist elements from both parties. It was opposed by the left wing of the Democratic Party, and by the right wing of the Republican Party, and criticized for centralizing too much power in Washington.
Complaints also came from middle-class families, who were annoyed at the increasing emphasis on teaching to the test, rather than encouraging teachers to show creativity and stimulating students' imagination.  
Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms.
Academic performance impacts the perception of a school's educational program. Rural schools fare better than their urban counterparts in two key areas: test scores and drop-out rate. First, students in small schools performed equal to or better than their larger school counterparts.
 In addition, on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress, 4th and 8th grade students scored as well or better in reading, science, and mathematics. 
International Journal of Multicultural Education.
Education spending tops global list, study shows".
Some curricular approaches include integrating gender through story problems, writing prompts, readings, art assignments, research projects and guest lectures that foster spaces for students to articulate their own understandings and beliefs about gender.  LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum [ edit ]
Berube; American School Reform: Progressive, Equity, and Excellence Movements, 1883–1993. Online version
"Fact Sheet: Is the Dropout Problem Real?". Tavis Smiley Reports: Episode 6: Education Under Arrest.
Building a Better Teacher: How Teaching Works (and How to Teach It to Everyone).
The reliance on local funding sources has led to a long history of court challenges about how states fund their schools. These challenges have relied on interpretations of state constitutions after a U.
Supreme Court ruling that school funding was not a matter of the U. Constitution ( San Antonio independent school District v.
The state court cases, beginning with the California case of Serrano v. 3d 584 (1971), were initially concerned with equity in funding, which was defined in terms of variations in spending across local school districts.
More recently, state court cases have begun to consider what has been called 'adequacy. ' These cases have questioned whether the total amount of spending was sufficient to meet state constitutional requirements. Perhaps the most famous adequacy case is Abbott v.
2d 376 (1985), which has involved state court supervision over several decades and has led to some of the highest spending of any U. Districts in the so-called Abbott districts.
The background and results of these cases are analyzed in a book by Eric Hanushek and Alfred Lindseth.  That analysis concludes that funding differences are not closely related to student outcomes and thus that the outcomes of the court cases have not led to improved policies.
"Per pupil spending by school district in the United States". Teachers College, Columbia University. Teachers worked from about 35 to 46 hours a week, in a survey taken in 1993.  In 2011, American teachers worked 1,097 hours in the classroom, the most for any industrialized nation measured by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
They spend 1,913 hours a year on their work, just below the national average of 1,932 hours for all workers.  In 2011, the average annual salary of a preK–12 teacher was $55,040.  [ better source needed]
123–7, March 2006; Cheating: "but everybody is doing it". The Transformation of the School: Progressivism in American Education, 1876–1957.
"The aesthetics of white racism in pre‐service teacher education: A critical race theory perspective". Most children begin elementary education with kindergarten (usually five to six years old) and finish secondary education with twelfth grade (usually 17–18 years old). In some cases, pupils may be promoted beyond the next regular grade.
Parents may also choose to educate their own children at home; 1. 7% of children are educated in this manner.  [ clarification needed]
"A tax increase for Michigan school funding is possible only if school districts cut costs, says Flint Journal columnist Peter Luke". Archived from the original on May 31, 2008.
Illiteracy Rate Hasn't Changed in 10 Years".
Students fall behind", Joe Heim.
Retrieved 6 Feb 2017 There is considerable variability in the exact arrangement of grades, as the following table indicates. It has been alleged, since the 1950s and especially in recent years, that American schooling is undergoing a crisis in which academic performance is behind other countries, such as Russia, Japan, or China, in core subjects. Congress passed the National Defense Education Act in 1958 in an attempt to rectify these problems, and a series of other legislative acts in later decades such as No Child Left Behind.
According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, however, American students of 2012 ranked 25th in math, 17th in science, and 14th in reading compared with students in 27 other countries.  In 2013, Amanda Ripley published the popular book The Smartest Kids in the World (And How They Got That Way), a comparative study of how the American education system differs from top-performing countries such as Finland and South Korea, but she found some students in South Korea spent over 12 hours per day in the classroom, with evening tutors, plus 2 months longer, while Finland demanded teachers attend extra teacher training and pass rigorous checks which 80% of teachers failed.  Rather than using some clever learning techniques, instead the teachers and students were forced to spend extra, rigorous time in training or double hours to improve results, which in some cases faded away after a year, although the testing of results was also questionable. Teachers generally failed to have extra training and selection which could mean better teaching, but also indicated the U. Could benefit from a culture which valued some higher intellectual levels. 
"Educational Attainment in the United States: 2015" (PDF).
Some programs, such as medicine and psychology, have formal apprenticeship procedures post-graduation, such as residencies and internships, which must be completed after graduation and before one is considered fully trained. Other professional programs like law and business have no formal apprenticeship requirements after graduation (although law school graduates must take the bar exam to legally practice law in nearly all states). Under the No Child Left Behind Act and Every Student Succeeds Acts, all American states must test students in public schools statewide to ensure that they are achieving the desired level of minimum education,  such as on the New York Regents Examinations, the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) or the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS); students being educated at home or in private schools are not included.
The act also required that students and schools show adequate yearly progress. This means they must show some improvement each year. When a student fails to make adequate yearly progress, NCLB mandated that remediation through summer school or tutoring be made available to a student in need of extra help.
On December 10, 2015 President Barack Obama signed legislation replacing NCLB with the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).  However, the enactment of ESSA did not eliminate provisions relating to the periodic standardized tests given to students.   Bibliography [ edit ] US fourth and eighth graders tested above average on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study tests, which emphasizes traditional learning.
 The National Center for Education Statistics reported statistics about public schools in the United States in 2013-2014. They stated that, during that time, 93% controlled access to their buildings during school hours, and that 88% have in place a written crisis response plan. They also reported that 82% of schools have a system that notifies parents in the event of an emergency.
According to their report, 75% of schools have security cameras in use. 
Approximately 85% of students enter the public schools,  largely because they are tax-subsidized (tax burdens by school districts vary from area to area). School districts are usually separate from other local jurisdictions, with independent officials and budgets.
Non-profit committed to publishing authentic Waldorf enrollment materials, books, and teaching. "The End of Year Report in Waldorf Schools". As of January 2009, the four largest college textbook publishers in the United States were: Pearson Education (including such imprints as Addison-Wesley and Prentice Hall), Cengage Learning (formerly Thomson Learning), McGraw-Hill Education, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
[ citation needed] Other US textbook publishers include: John Wiley & Sons, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, F. Norton & Company, SAGE Publications, and Flat World Knowledge. How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Educational stages [ edit ] Second year: "sophomore year" While the hiring of teachers for public schools is done at the local school district level, the pension funds for teachers are usually managed at the state level. Some states have significant deficits when future requirements for teacher pensions are examined. In 2014, these were projected deficits for various states: Illinois -$187 billion, Connecticut -$57 billion, Kentucky -$41 billion, Hawaii -$16. These deficits range from 184% to 318% of these states' annual total budget.
 Funding for college [ edit ] Library guides [ edit ] 8–9 Further reading [ edit ]
"The original Pledge of Allegiance".
According to The 74, an American education news website, the United States uses two methods to teach sex education. Comprehensive sex education focuses on sexual risk reduction. This method focuses on the benefits of contraception and safe sex.
The abstinence-emphasized curriculum focuses on sexual risk avoidance, discouraging activity that could become a "gateway" to sexual activities.  Textbook review and adoption [ edit ]
The global bell curve: race, IQ, and inequality worldwide.
Archived from the original on April 14, 2010. Local property taxes for public school funding may have disadvantages depending on how wealthy or poor these cities may be.
Some of the disadvantages may be not having the proper electives of students interest or advanced placement courses to further the knowledge and education of these students. Cases such as these limit students and causes inequality in education because there is no easy way to gain access to those courses since the education system might not view them as necessary. The public education system does provide the classes needed to obtain a GED (General Education Development) and obtain a job or pursue higher education.
 A third explanation which has been suggested, by, for example University of California, Berkeley Professor Arthur Jensen, in a controversial paper published in 1969, is that there is an innate difference in intelligence between blacks and whites. Other publications are critical of Jensen's methods and disagree with his conclusions. The idea that the difference in achievement is primarily genetic is controversial,  and few members of the academic community accept these findings as fact.
  Several reasons have been suggested for these disparities. Private institutions are privately funded and there is a wide variety in size, focus, and operation.
Some private institutions are large research universities, while others are small liberal arts colleges that concentrate on undergraduate education. Some private universities are nonsectarian and secular, while others are religiously-affiliated. While most private institutions are non-profit, a growing number in the past decade have been established as for-profit.
However, the picture changes when low achievers, Blacks and Hispanics, in the U.
White and Asian students in the United States are generally among the best-performing pupils in the world; black By 1910, 72 percent of children were attending school. Private schools spread during this time, as well as colleges and – in the rural centers – land grant colleges also. Between 1910 and 1940 the high school movement resulted in a rapid increase in public high school enrollment and graduations.
By 1930, 100 percent of children were attending school [ citation needed] (excluding children with significant disabilities or medical concerns). 
It is assumed that all people with doctorates also have undergraduate and high school degrees, and are thus counted twice in the "lower" categories. It is not assumed, however, that all doctorates or professional degrees have Master's degrees. Age 25 is used rather than age 18 because there are few people aged 18 or over with advanced degrees.
"Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009". Archived from the original on October 13, 2010.
In response to this phenomenon, California's citizens passed Proposition 13 in 1978, which severely restricted the ability of the Legislature to expand the state's educational system to keep up with growth. Some states, such as Michigan, have investigated or implemented alternative schemes for funding education that may sidestep the problems of funding based mainly on property taxes by providing funding based on sales or income tax. These schemes also have failings, negatively impacting funding in a slow economy.
 Professional degrees such as law, medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry, are offered as graduate study after earning at least three years of undergraduate schooling or after earning a bachelor's degree depending on the program. These professional fields do not require a specific undergraduate major, though medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry have set prerequisite courses that must be taken before enrollment. [ citation needed] Many graduate students do not start professional schools immediately after finishing undergraduate studies, but work for a time while saving up money or deciding on a career direction.
Unlike public school systems, private schools have no legal obligation to accept any interested student. Admission to some private schools is often highly selective. Private schools also have the ability to permanently expel persistently unruly students, a disciplinary option not legally available to public school systems.
In 1965, the far-reaching Elementary and Secondary Education Act ('ESEA'), passed as a part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's War on Poverty, provided funds for primary and secondary education ('Title I funding'). Title VI explicitly forbade the establishment of a national curriculum.
 Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 created the Pell Grant program which provides financial support to students from low-income families to access higher education.
The country has a reading literacy rate of 99% of the population over age 15,  while ranking below average in science and mathematics understanding compared to other developed countries.  In 2014, a record high of 82% of high school seniors graduated, although one of the reasons for that success might be a decline in academic standards. 
In some states, textbooks are selected for all students at the state level, and decisions made by larger states, such as California and Texas, that represent a considerable market for textbook publishers and can exert influence over the content of textbooks generally, thereby influencing the curriculum taught in public schools,  Lower status institutions include community colleges. These are primarily two-year public institutions, which individual states usually require to accept all local residents who seek admission, and offer associate's degrees or vocational certificate programs. Many community colleges have relationships with four-year state universities and colleges or even private universities that enable their students to transfer to these universities for a four-year degree after completing a two-year program at the community college.
[ citation needed] Admission to individual public schools is usually based on residency. To compensate for differences in school quality based on geography, school systems serving large cities and portions of large cities often have magnet schools that provide enrollment to a specified number of non-resident students in addition to serving all resident students. This special enrollment is usually decided by lottery with equal numbers of males and females chosen.
Some magnet schools The method of placing students in a specific grade based on birthday cut off dates has often been used with immigrant children. A study conducted by Dylan Conger on effects of grade placement on English learners found that schools are often rushed to make a decision on what grade an incoming student should be placed, so they base their decision on the child's birthday.  Unfortunately, teachers and staff are not always able to test the child's knowledge to determine what grade level would be better for the students based on what they already know.
 This can cause some difficulties for immigrant students. A study conducted on teacher expectation of Somali Bantu refugee students found that teachers can hold expectations for students to already know certain material when they enter their classroom, such as how to use a computer or how to behave in a classroom.  When these students learned something that the teacher already expected them to know, it was not given the same importance compared to learning something that was being taught in that grade level, such as math proficiency or computer use.
 Things can become more difficult for students when entering in the middle of the academic year. A study focused on the impact of late arrivals for immigrant students found that, due to constant moving, students entering in the middle of the academic year encountered material they were not familiar with or ended up repeating material they had already learned.  This effect is however reduced with modern publishing techniques which allow books to be tailored to individual states.
 School start times are computed with busing in mind. There are often three start times: for elementary, for middle/junior high school, and for high school. One school district computed its cost per bus (without the driver) at $20,575 annually.
It assumed a model where the average driver drove 80 miles per day. A driver was presumed to cost $. Elementary schools started at 7:30, middle schools/junior high school started at 8:30, and high schools at 8:15. While elementary school started earlier, they also finish earlier, at 2:30, middle schools at 3:30 and high schools at 3:20.
 All school districts establish their own times and means of transportation within guidelines set by their own state.
Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
Research generally demonstrates neutral or positive effects of inclusive education. Showed that a group of deaf/hard-of-hearing students in an inclusive classroom scored better than the national averages on reading comprehension, vocabulary, and mathematical problem solving measures.
 Another study showed that inclusive practices increased literacy rates for autistic students.  Many theorists champion the potential socio-emotional benefits of inclusion. However research on the social dynamics of inclusive classrooms suggest that special needs students might occupy a lower social standing that non-special needs students.
 Immigrant students and grade placement [ edit ]
Archived from the original on March 16, 2011.
 K–12 education [ edit ] Like high school, the four undergraduate grades are commonly called freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years (alternatively called first year, second year, etc. Students traditionally apply for admission into colleges.
Schools differ in their competitiveness and reputation. Admissions criteria involve the rigor and grades earned in high school courses taken, the students' GPA, class ranking, and standardized test scores (Such as the SAT or the ACT tests). Most colleges also consider more subjective factors such as a commitment to extracurricular activities, a personal essay, and an interview.
While colleges will rarely list that they require a certain standardized test score, class ranking, or GPA for admission, each college usually has a rough threshold below which admission is unlikely. [ citation needed] Private schools in the United States include parochial schools (affiliated with religious denominations),  non-profit independent schools, and for-profit private schools. Private schools charge varying rates depending on geographic location, the school's expenses, and the availability of funding from sources, other than tuition.
For example, some churches partially subsidize private schools for their members. Some people have argued that when their child attends a private school, they should be able to take the funds that the public school no longer needs and apply that money towards private school tuition in the form of vouchers. This is the basis of the school choice movement.
[ citation needed] 6th grade
The bell curve: intelligence and class structure in American life ([4.
Washington State (2012),  Supreme Court decision that found the state had failed to "amply" fund public education for Washington's 1 million school children. Washington state had budgeted $18. 2 billion for education spending in the two-year fiscal period ending in July 2015.
The state Supreme Court decided that this budget must be boosted by $3. 3 billion in total by July 2019. On September 11, 2014, the state Supreme Court found the legislature in contempt for failing to uphold a court order to come up with a plan to boost its education budget by billions of dollars over the next five years.
The state had argued that it had adequately funded education and said diverting tax revenue could lead to shortfalls in other public services.  Pensions [ edit ]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Education in the United States. In 2006, there were roughly 600,000 homeless students in the United States, but after the Great Recession this number more than doubled to approximately 1.
 The Institute for Child Poverty and Homelessness keeps track of state by state levels of child homelessness.  Test performance for primary and secondary schools [ edit ]
Archived from the original on October 8, 2010.
"More than Segregation Academies: The Growing Protestant Fundamentalist Schools".
Major issues include assessment of proficiency versus growth, funding and legal protection of special education, and excessive student loan debt. Higher education in the United States is an optional final stage of formal learning following secondary education, often at one of the 4,495 colleges or universities and junior colleges in the country.  In 2008, 36% of enrolled students graduated from college in four years.
57% completed their undergraduate requirements in six years, at the same college they first enrolled in.
Ranks 10th among industrial countries for percentage of adults with college degrees.  Over the past 40 years the gap in graduation rates for wealthy students and low income students has widened significantly. 77% of the wealthiest quartile of students obtained undergraduate degrees by age 24 in 2013, up from 40% in 1970.
9% of the least affluent quartile obtained degrees by the same age in 2013, up from 6% in 1970.  21–22
Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Education.
 International comparison [ edit ]
"The impact of desegregation on black teachers in the metropolis, 1970–2000". Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Education in the United States.
Why People Believe Weird Things, Second Edition (2002), Henry Holt, Page 142
Com/local/education/number-of-us-homeless-students-has-doubled-since-before-the-recession/2015/09/14/0c1fadb6-58c2-11e5-8bb1-b488d231bba2_story. Html Depending upon their circumstances, children may begin school in pre-kindergarten, kindergarten or first grade. Students normally attend 12 grades of study over 12 calendar years of primary/elementary and secondary education before graduating and earning a diploma that makes them eligible for admission to higher education.
Education is mandatory until age 16 (18 in some states).
 Public (free) education is typically from kindergarten to grade 12 (frequently abbreviated K–12).
National Center for Education Statistics.
Archived from the original on May 7, 2010.
Four Years to Nowhere: College Degrees, Zombies, and the Future of Education.
Com/four-years-to-nowhere-investing-in-a-college-degree/ In some schools, a police officer, titled a school resource officer, is on site to screen students for firearms and to help avoid disruptions.   [ citation needed] Issues [ edit ] LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum is curriculum that includes positive representations of LGBTQ people, history, and events.  LGBTQ curriculum also attempts to integrate these narratives without biasing the LGBTQ experience as a separate and fragmented from overarching social narratives and not as intersecting with ethnic, racial, and other forms of diversity that exist among LGBTQ individuals.
 19–20 In the mid-20th century, the rapidly increasing Catholic population led to the formation of parochial schools in the largest cities. Theologically oriented Episcopalian, Lutheran, and Jewish bodies on a smaller scale set up their own parochial schools. There were debates over whether tax money could be used to support them, with the answer typically being no.
From about 1876, thirty-nine states passed a constitutional amendment to their state constitutions, called Blaine Amendments after James G. Blaine, one of their chief promoters, forbidding the use of public tax money to fund local parochial schools. For example, a 1999 study by the Guttmacher Institute found that most U. Sex education courses in grades 7 through 12 cover puberty, HIV, STDs, abstinence, implications of teenage pregnancy, and how to resist peer pressure. Other studied topics, such as methods of birth control and infection prevention, sexual orientation, sexual abuse, and factual and ethical information about abortion, varied more widely.
Public secondary schools, 1988–1999". Culturally-responsive curriculum [ edit ] The test scores of students attending U. Public schools are lower than student scores in schools of other developed countries, in the areas of reading, math, and science.  Main article: History of education in the United States 19th century [ edit ] In 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act established funding for special education in schools.
Standardized testing has become increasingly controversial in recent years. Creativity and the need for applicable knowledge are becoming rapidly more valuable than simple memorization. Opponents of standardized education  have stated that it is the system of standardized education itself  that is to blame for employment issues and concerns over the questionable abilities of recent graduates.
    Others consider standardized tests to be a valuable objective check on grade inflation. In recent years, grade point averages (particularly in suburban schools) have been rising while SAT scores have been falling. 
 Around 20 percent of schools had one or more security guards or security personnel while 10. 9 percent had one or more full or part-time law enforcement officers. Forty-two percent of schools had at least one school resource officer.
 Included among the top 20 institutions identified by ARWU in 2009 are six of the eight schools in the Ivy League; 4 of the 10 schools in the University of California system (Berkeley, Los Angeles, San Diego and San Francisco); the private Universities of Stanford, Chicago, and Johns Hopkins; the public Universities of Washington and Wisconsin; and the Massachusetts and California Institutes of Technology. 
Diagram of education in the United States
The Emergence of the Common School in the U. Poor education also carries on as students age.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) administer another survey called the Survey of Adult Skills, which is a part of its Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). In the most recent survey done in 2013, 33 nations took part with adults ages 16 to 65 in numeracy, literacy and problem-solving. The Educational Testing Service (ETS) found that millennials – age from teens to early 30s – scored low.
Millennials in Spain and Italy scored lower than those in the U. , while in numeracy, the three countries tied for last. Millennials came in last among all 33 nations for problem-solving skills.
 Wider economic impact [ edit ]
Adults are unable to read this story".
Statistics, Degree-Granting Institutions and Branches, by Type and Control of Institution and State of Jurisdiction, 2009–10 Archived March 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (September 2010). Retrieved December 1, 2011 Undergraduate
Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. During high school, students (usually in 11th grade) may take one or more standardized tests depending on their post-secondary education preferences and their local graduation requirements. In theory, these tests evaluate the overall level of knowledge and learning aptitude of the students.
The SAT and ACT are the most common standardized tests that students take when applying to college. A student may take the SAT, ACT, both, or neither depending upon the post-secondary institutions the student plans to apply to for admission. Most competitive post-secondary institutions also require two or three SAT Subject Tests (formerly known as SAT IIs), which are shorter exams that focus strictly on a particular subject matter.
However, all these tests serve little to no purpose for students who do not move on to post-secondary education, so they can usually be skipped without affecting one's ability to graduate. Schools use several methods to determine grade placement. One method involves placing students in a grade based on a child's birthday.
Cut off dates based on the child's birthday determine placement in either a higher or lower grade level. For example, if the school's cut off date is September 1, and an incoming student's birthday is August 2, then this student would be placed in a higher grade level.  If the student is in high school, this could mean that the student gets placed as a junior instead of a sophomore because of their birthday.
If the student's birthday falls after the cut off date, such as November 1, then s/he would be placed in the lower grade, which in this example, would be a sophomore. Vocational school The school-to-prison pipeline (SPP) is the disproportionate tendency of minors and young adults from disadvantaged backgrounds to become incarcerated, because of increasingly harsh school and municipal policies. This inhibits many of these young adults from going to college.
  Reading and writing habits [ edit ]
   
Curriculum varies widely depending on the institution. Typically, an undergraduate student will be able to select an academic "major" or concentration, which comprises the main or special subjects, and students may change their major one or more times.
"Students prioritize extracurriculars over academics | The Ithacan".
Colleges and Universities and Degrees Awarded, 2005 –". School to prison pipeline [ edit ] ACT Inc. Reports that 25% of US graduating high school seniors meet college-readiness benchmarks in English, reading, mathematics, and science.
 Including the 22% of students who do not graduate on time, fewer than 20% of the American youth, who should graduate high school each year, do so prepared for college.  The United States has fallen behind the rest of the developed world in education, creating a global achievement gap that alone costs the nation 9-to-16% of potential GDP each year. 
Like acceptance to "top tier" universities, competition for these limited nominations is intense and must be accompanied by superior scholastic achievement and evidence of "leadership potential. "
Community colleges are generally publicly funded (usually by local cities or counties) and offer career certifications and part-time programs.
Big Gap in College Graduation Rates for Rich and Poor, Study Finds The Wall Street Journal. NAEP reading long-term trends for ages 9 (light gray), 13 (dark gray), and 17 (black) K–12 students in most areas have a choice between free tax-funded public schools, or privately funded private schools.
Americans buy more books than do Europeans.  ( University) Private schools offer the advantages of smaller classes, under twenty students in a typical elementary classroom, for example; a higher teacher/student ratio across the school day, greater individualized attention and in the more competitive schools, expert college placement services. Unless specifically designed to do so, private schools usually cannot offer the services required by students with serious or multiple learning, emotional, or behavioral issues.
Although reputed to pay lower salaries than public school systems, private schools often attract teachers by offering high-quality professional development opportunities, including tuition grants for advanced degrees. According to elite private schools themselves, this investment in faculty development helps maintain the high quality program that they offer. [ citation needed]
At the college and university level student loan funding is split in half; half is managed by the Department of Education directly, called the Federal Direct Student Loan Program (FDSLP). The other half is managed by commercial entities such as banks, credit unions, and financial services firms such as Sallie Mae, under the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP). Some schools accept only FFELP loans; others accept only FDSLP.
Still others accept both, and a few schools will not accept either, in which case students must seek out private alternatives for student loans. 
Wasted Brilliance: Slavery of the Industrial Mind and the Path to Freedom and Success.
Teachers can gain in-depth understandings of their students' individual needs by engaging with parents, learning about culturally-specific ways of communicating and learning, and allowing students to direct their learning and to collaborate on assignments that are both culturally and socially relevant to them.  Grant funding is provided by the federal Pell Grant program.
"Academic and Social Benefits of a Co-enrollment Model of Inclusive Education for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children". Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education.
" 'The Shame of the Nation': Separate and Unequal".
Creating the Dropout: An Institutional and Social History of School Failure.
Junior/ 11th grade
National Center for Education Statistics. 4th grade
Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2013. The purpose of LGBTQ-inclusive curriculum is to ensure that LGBTQ students feel properly represented in curriculum narratives and therefore safer coming to school and more comfortable discussing LGBTQ-related topics.
A study by GLSEN examined the impact of LGBTQ-inclusive practices on LGBTQ student's perceptions of safety. They study found that LGBT students in inclusive school-settings were much less likely to feel unsafe because of their identities and more likely to perceive their peers as accepting and supportive. Also renowned within the United States are the so-called Little Ivies and a number of prestigious liberal arts colleges.
Certain public universities (sometimes referred to as Public Ivies) are also recognized for their outstanding record in scholarship. Some of these institutions currently place among the elite in certain measurements of graduate education and research, especially among engineering and medical schools.   A five-year, $14 million study of U. Adult literacy involving lengthy interviews of U.
Adults, the most comprehensive study of literacy ever commissioned by the U. Government,  was released in September 1993.
It involved lengthy interviews of over 26,700 adults statistically balanced for age, gender, ethnicity, education level, and location (urban, suburban, or rural) in 12 states across the U. And was designed to represent the U. This government study showed that 21% to 23% of adult Americans were not "able to locate information in text", could not "make low-level inferences using printed materials", and were unable to "integrate easily identifiable pieces of information. Hanushek, Ludger Woessmann, Eliot A.
Jamison, "Education and Economic Growth: It's not just going to school, but learning something while there that matters", Education Next, Spring 2008 / Vol. 2 In the United States, state and local government have primary responsibility for education.
The Federal Department of Education plays a role in standards setting and education finance, and some primary and secondary schools, for the children of military employees, are run by the Department of Defense.  Library books are more readily available to Americans than to people in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Austria and all the Mediterranean nations. The average American borrowed more library books in 2001 than his or her peers in Germany, Austria, Norway, Ireland, Luxembourg, France and throughout the Mediterranean.
 Another explanation has to do with family structure. Professor Lino Graglia has suggested that Blacks and Hispanics are falling behind in education because they are increasingly raised in single-parent families.   An August 17, 2000 article by the Chicago Sun-Times refers to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago Office of Catholic Schools as the largest private school system in the United States.
 Charter schools [ edit ]
Burlington Free Press (and other column subscribers).
Suggestions for improving standardized testing include evaluating a student's overall growth, possibly including non-cognitive qualities such as social and emotional behaviors, not just achievement; introducing 21st century skills and values; and making the tests open-ended, authentic, and engaging.  Extracurricular activities [ edit ]
"The effects of cooperative learning on junior high school students during small group learning".
"Acculturation and Assimilation: A Qualitative Inquiry of Teacher Expectations for Somali Bantu Refugee Students". Education and Urban Society: 001312451774703. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011.
 Education in how to be empathic and conscientious of the needs of LGBTQ patients fits within the larger conversation about culturally-responsive healthcare. Ability-inclusive curriculum [ edit ]
Some students, typically those with a bachelor's degree, may choose to continue on to graduate or professional school, sometimes attached to a university. Graduate degrees may be either master's degrees (e.
, MA, MS, MBA, MSW) or doctorate degrees (e. Programs range from full-time, evening and executive which allows for flexibility with students' schedules.
 Academia-focused graduate school typically includes some combination of coursework and research (often requiring a thesis or dissertation to be written), while professional graduate-level schools grants a first professional degree. These include medical, law, business, education, divinity, art, journalism, social work, architecture, and engineering schools.
"Throwing Children Away: The School-to-Prison Pipeline". Ability-inclusive curriculum is another curriculum model that adapts to the social, physical, and cultural needs of the students.
Inclusion in the US education system refers to the approach to educating students with special needs in a mainstream classroom. This model involves cultivating a strong relationship between teacher and student, and between non-special needs students and special needs students. Like the other models of culturally-inclusive curriculum, ability-inclusive curriculum often involves collaboration, parental-involvement, the creation of a safe and welcoming environment, returning agency to the students over their learning, and fostering open discussion about individual differences and strengths.
His movement spread, leading many other Southern states to establish small colleges for "Colored or Negro" students entitled "A. ," ("Agricultural and Mechanical") or "A. ," ("Agricultural and Technical"), some of which later developed into state universities. Before the 1940s, there were very few black students at private or state colleges in the North, and almost none in the South.
 Teachers believe that parents are not supervising their children's free time to encourage the learning process, such as basic literacy, which is crucial not only to later success in life, but also to keeping them out of prison.  See also [ edit ] The racial achievement gap in the US refers to the educational disparities between Black and Hispanic students compared with Asian and Caucasian students.  This disparity manifests itself in a variety of ways: African-American and Hispanic students are more likely to receive lower grades, score lower on standardized tests, drop out of high school, and are less likely to enter and complete college.
 In K–12 education, sometimes students who receive failing grades are held back a year and repeat coursework in the hope of earning satisfactory scores on the second try. Some undergraduate institutions offer an accelerated three-year bachelor's degree, or a combined five-year bachelor's and master's degrees.
National Center for Education Statistics.
"Most colleges enroll many students who aren't prepared for higher education". Teachers College at Columbia University. A high school diploma, no matter how recently earned, doesn't guarantee that students are prepared for college courses. One of the biggest debates in funding public schools is funding by local taxes or state taxes.
The federal government supplies around 8. 5% of the public school system funds, according to a 2005 report by the National Center for Education Statistics. "Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education, Table 1".
National Center for Education Statistics. The remaining split between state and local governments averages 48. For more detailed bibliography see History of Education in the United States: Bibliography Libraries have been considered important to educational goals. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management. Out of 21 industrialized countries, U.
12th graders ranked 19th in math, 16th in science, and last in advanced physics. In the 2010s, student loan debt became recognized as a social problem.      Statistics [ edit ]
 In 2010, there were 3,823,142 teachers in public, charter, private, and Catholic elementary and secondary schools. They taught a total of 55,203,000 students, who attended one of 132,656 schools.  The notion of gender-sensitive curriculum acknowledges the current reality of our bi-gender world and attempts to break down socialized learning outcomes that reinforce the notion that girls and boys are good at different things.
 Research has shown that while girls do struggle more in the areas of math and science and boys in the area of language arts, this is a socialization phenomenon, rather than a physiological one.  One key to creating a gender-friendly classroom is "differentiation" which essentially means when teachers plan and deliver their instruction with an awareness of gender and other student differences.  Teachers can strategically group students for learning activities by a variety of characteristics so as to maximize individual strengths and contributions.
 Research has also shown that teacher's differ in how they treat girls and boys in the classroom.  Gender-sensitive practices necessitate equitable and appropriate attention to all learners. Teacher attention to content is also extremely important.
For example, when trying to hold boy's attention teachers will often use examples that reference classically male roles, perpetuating a gender bias in content. 
5% of these were Caucasian, non-Hispanic, 9. 4% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and.
The number of students per teacher was about 11. 65% of seniors in private schools in 2006–07 went on to attend a four-year college.  Some counties and cities have established and funded four-year institutions.
Some of these institutions, such as the City University of New York, are still operated by local governments. Others such as the University of Louisville and Wichita State University are now operated as state universities.
Teachers were specially trained in normal schools and taught the three Rs (of reading, writing, and arithmetic) and also history and geography. Public education was at the elementary level in most places. After the Civil War (1861–1865), the cities began building high schools.
The South was far behind northern standards on every educational measure and gave weak support to its segregated all-black schools. However northern philanthropy and northern churches provided assistance to private black colleges across the South. Religious denominations across the country set up their private colleges.
States also opened state universities, but they were quite small until well into the 20th century.
A study by Howard in 2001, documents student's responses to culturally-responsive curriculum and teaching strategies. The study found that these methods had a positive effect on student engagement and effort in the classroom. These findings are consistent with the theoretical claims of culturally-responsive curriculum.
 Therefore, the values that we attach to various groups of people are a reflection of the behavior we have observed around us, especially in the classroom.  Culturally-responsive curriculum responds to the importance of teachers connecting with students in increasingly diverse classrooms in the US by incorporating sociocultural elements into curriculum. The goal of culturally-responsive curriculum is to ensure equitable access to education for students from all cultures. Department of Education's 2003 statistics indicated that 14% of the population – or 32 million adults – had very low literacy skills.
 Statistics were similar in 2013.  The 2002 No Child Left Behind Act, passed by a bipartisan coalition in Congress provided federal aid to the states in exchange for measures to penalize schools that were not meeting the goals as measured by standardized state exams in mathematics and language skills.    In the same year, the U. Supreme Court diluted some of the century-old "Blaine" laws upheld an Ohio law allowing aid to parochial schools under specific circumstances.  The 2006 Commission on the Future of Higher Education evaluated higher education.
In December 2015, President Barack Obama signed legislation replacing No Child Left Behind with the Every Student Succeeds Act. School Maintenance and Renovation Administrator Policies, Practices, & Economic (2nd expanded ed.
Lancaster PA: DEStech Publications, Inc. Regardless of perceived prestige, many institutions feature at least one distinguished academic department, and most post-secondary American students attend one of the 2,400 four-year colleges and universities or 1,700 two-year colleges not included among the 25 or so 'top-tier' institutions.
 Credential inflation [ edit ] Sophomore/ 10th grade Graduate study, conducted after obtaining an initial degree and sometimes after several years of professional work, leads to a more advanced degree such as a master's degree, which could be a Master of Arts (MA), Master of Science (MS), Master of Business Administration (MBA), or other less common master's degrees such as Master of Education (MEd), and Master of Fine Arts (MFA). Some students pursue a graduate degree that is in between a master's degree and a doctoral degree called a Specialist in Education (Ed. Once admitted, students engage in undergraduate study, which consists of satisfying university and class requirements to achieve a bachelor's degree in a field of concentration known as a major. (Some students enroll in double majors or "minor" in another field of study.
) The most common method consists of four years of study leading to a Bachelor of Arts (B. ), or sometimes another bachelor's degree such as Bachelor of Fine Arts (B. ), Bachelor of Engineering (BEng,) or Bachelor of Philosophy (B.
) Five-Year Professional Architecture programs offer the Bachelor of Architecture Degree (BArch)
However, human rights advocacy group, Human Rights Watch, argues that the technology could also threaten the right to privacy and could pose great risk to children of color.  Cheating [ edit ]
The State University of New York and the California State University are the largest public higher education systems in the United States; SUNY is the largest system that includes community colleges, while CSU is the largest without. Most areas also have private institutions, which may be for-profit or non-profit. Unlike many other nations, there are no public universities at the national level outside of the military service academies.
Typical ages and grade groupings in contemporary, public and private schools may be found through the U.
Generally there are three stages: elementary school (K–5th/6th grade), middle school (6th/7th–8th grades) and high school (9th–12th grades).  The 1954 Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas made racial desegregation of public elementary and high schools mandatory, although white families often attempted to avoid desegregation by sending their children to private secular or religious schools.
   In the years following this decision, the number of Black teachers rose in the North but dropped in the South.  Current education trends in the United States represent multiple achievement gaps across ethnicities, income levels, and geography. In an economic analysis, consulting firm McKinsey & Company reports that closing the educational achievement gap between the United States and nations such as Finland and Korea would have increased US GDP by 9-to-16% in 2008.
 In 2007, Americans stood second only to Canada in the percentage of 35- to 64-year-olds holding at least two-year degrees. Among 25- to 34-year-olds, the country stands tenth. The nation stands 15 out of 29 rated nations for college completion rates, slightly above Mexico and Turkey.
The average funding by state governments increased by 120% per student. However, scores in mathematics, science and language arts over that same period remained almost unchanged. Multi-year periods in which a state's funding per student declined substantially also appear to have had little effect.
Social Inequality: Forms, Causes, and Consequences.
Department of Education, "Public School Graduates and Dropouts from the Common Core Data: School Year 2009–10" (provisional data).
 The incarceration rate for African-American male high school dropouts was about 50 times the national average as of 2010 [update]. 
If you’re an independent school or a suburban school and you’re giving Bs and the school in the next community is giving A-minuses, you start to feel like those kids are going to get a leg up. So you start giving out A-minuses.
, The Presidency of Barack Obama pp 110–28.
The Diverted Dream: Community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900–1985.
Transporting students to and from school is a major concern for most school districts. School buses provide the largest mass transit program in the country, 8.
Non-school transit buses give 5. 440,000 yellow school buses carry over 24 million students to and from schools.
 In 1971, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that forced busing of students may be ordered to achieve racial desegregation.  This ruling resulted in a white flight from the inner cities which largely diluted the intent of the order. This flight had other, non-educational ramifications as well.
Integration took place in most schools though de facto segregation often determined the composition of the student body. By the 1990s, most areas of the country had been released from mandatory busing. A major characteristic of American schools is the high priority given to sports, clubs and activities by the community, the parents, the schools and the students themselves.
 Extracurricular activities are educational activities not falling within the scope of the regular curriculum but under the supervision of the school. Extracurriculars at the high school age (15–18),  this can be anything that doesn't require a high school credit or paid employment, but simply done out of pleasure or to also look good on a college transcript. Extracurricular activates for all ages can be categorized under clubs, art, culture and language, community, leadership, government, media, military, music, performing arts, religion, role play/fantasy, speech, sports, technology, and volunteer,  all of which take place outside of school hours.
These sorts of activities are put in place as other forms of teamwork, time management, goal setting, self-discovery, building self-esteem, relationship building, finding interests, and academics. These extracurricular activities and clubs can be sponsored by fund raising, or by the donation of parents who give towards the program in order for it to keep running. Students and Parents are also obligated to spend money on whatever supplies are necessary for this activity that are not provided for the school (sporting equipment, sporting attire, costumes, food, instruments)  These activities can extend to large amounts of time outside the normal school day; home-schooled students, however, are not normally allowed to participate.
Student participation in sports programs, drill teams, bands, and spirit groups can amount to hours of practices and performances. Most states have organizations that develop rules for competition between groups. These organizations are usually forced to implement time limits on hours practiced as a prerequisite for participation.
Many schools also have non-varsity sports teams; however, these are usually afforded fewer resources and less attention. Culturally-responsive curriculum is also implemented at the level of preservice teacher education. One study by Evans-Winters and Hoff found that preservice teachers do not necessarily recognize or acknowledge the intersections of race and other social factors in understanding and characterizing systems of oppression.
 A shift in preservice training has been made toward a more self-reflective model that encourages teachers to be reflective of the types of cultural and social attitudes they are promoting in their teaching practices.  This kind of preservice education can help teachers anticipate social-identity related tensions that might occur in the classroom and think critically about how to approach them.  Gender-sensitive curriculum [ edit ] Gradually by the late 1890s, regional associations of high schools, colleges and universities were being organized to coordinate proper accrediting standards, examinations, and regular surveys of various institutions in order to assure equal treatment in graduation and admissions requirements, as well as course completion and transfer procedures.
"No Time to Lose, How to Build a World-Class
 He states that the more money that a state spends on higher education, the slower the economy grows, the opposite of long held notions.  Other studies have shown that the level of cognitive achievement attained by students in a country (as measured by academic testing) is closely correlated with the country's economic growth, but that "increasing the average number of years of schooling attained by the labor force boosts the economy only when increased levels of school attainment also boost cognitive skills. In other words, it is not enough simply to spend more time in school; something has to be learned there.
"  Governance and funding [ edit ]
 In the 2006 assessment, the U. Ranked 35th out of 57 in mathematics and 29th out of 57 in science.
Reading scores could not be reported due to printing errors in the instructions of the U. Scores were behind those of most other developed nations.
Online version College
: Sennholz is not clearly identified as the editor of this collection of essays on the subject, but his editorship seems probable.
History of Education and Culture in America. The school upon a hill: Education and society in colonial New England.