How did BF Skinner impact education?
 United Kingdom [ edit ]
, in order to be admitted to a Juris Doctor program, applicants must have completed a minimum of 2 or 3 years of study toward a bachelor's degree and scored high on the North American Law School Admission Test.  As a practical matter, nearly all successful applicants have completed one or more degrees before admission to a Canadian common law school,  although despite this it is, along with other first professional degrees, considered to be a bachelor's degree-level qualification.  All Canadian Juris Doctor programs consist of three years, and have similar content in their mandatory first year courses.
The mandatory first year courses in Canadian law schools outside Quebec include public law (i. Provincial law, constitutional law, and administrative law), property law, tort law, contract law, criminal law, and legal research and writing.
 Beyond first year and other courses required for graduation, course selection is elective with various concentrations such as commercial and corporate law, taxation, international law, natural resources law, real estate transactions, employment law, criminal law, and Aboriginal law.  After graduation from an accredited law school, each province's or territory's law society requires completion of a bar admission course or examination, and a period of supervised "articling" prior to independent practice. 
Ministerial Statement on Quality Assurance of Degree Education in Canada. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada.
Programs with a professional focus.
Some of them are first-entry programs, others are second-entry programs.
Though considered to be bachelor's programs in academic standing, some professional programs yield degrees with other nomenclature. Examples: DDS (Dental Surgery), MD (Medicine), LLB, or JD (Juris Doctor)
This curriculum is professionally oriented,  but does not provide the education sufficient for a license to practice as an attorney in Japan, as all candidates for a license must have 12 month practical training by the Legal Training and Research Institute after passing the bar examination.  Similarly to the US, the Juris Doctor is classed as a "Professional Degree" (専門職) in Japan, which is separate from the "academic" postgraduate sequence of master's degrees and doctorates.   Mexico [ edit ] The degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence (J. ) is offered at the Singapore Management University (SMU), and it is treated as a qualifying law degree for the purposes of admission to the legal profession in Singapore.  A graduate of this programme is a "qualified person" under Singapore's legislation governing entry to the legal profession, and is eligible for admission to the Singapore Bar.
Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie's Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15. "Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School", in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn.
The traditional law degree in Australia is the undergraduate Bachelor of Laws ( LLB); however, there has been a huge shift towards the JD in the past five years, with some Australian universities now offering a JD programme, including the country's best ranked universities (e. The University of New South Wales,  the University of Sydney,  the Australian National University,  the University of Melbourne  and Monash University )
4: SU Law adopts Juris Doctor Program. Archived copies can be viewed and verified at the Sillimaniana Section of the Silliman University Main Library.
Joint LLB/JD courses for a very limited number of students are offered by University College London, King's College London and the London School of Economics in collaboration with Columbia University in the US, which is responsible for the award of the JD. These are four-year undergraduate courses leading to the award of both a British LLB and a US JD.   
"De La Salle Lipa College of Law".
"The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction".
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-06. First-professional degrees will not be considered in themselves as PhD-equivalent, even if recipients carry the title "Doctor".
European Network on Law and Society.
1858-10-20 – via British Newspaper Archive. Archived from the original on 2008-05-18. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)
(2004) Legal Education in the United States, New Jersey: Lawbook Exchange, page 50. Until the mid nineteenth century, most law degrees in England (the BCL at Oxford and Durham, and the LLB at London)    were postgraduate degrees, taken after an initial degree in Arts. The Cambridge degree, variously referred to as a BCL, BL or LLB, was an exception: it took 6 years from matriculation to complete, but only three of these had to be in residence, and the BA was not required (although those not holding a BA had to produce a certificate to prove they had not only been in residence but had actually attended lectures for at least three terms).
  These degrees specialised in Roman Civil Law rather than English Common Law, which was the domain of the Inns of Court, and were thus more theoretical than practically useful.  Cambridge reestablished its LLB degree in 1858 as an undergraduate course alongside the BA,  and the London LLB, which had previously required a minimum of one year after the BA, become an undergraduate degree in 1866.  The older nomenclature continues to be used for the BCL at Oxford today, which is a master's level program, while Cambridge moved its LLB back to being a postgraduate degree in 1922 but only renamed it as the LLM in 1982.
Present-day Law Schools in the United States and Canada. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 21.
Cambridge University Faculty of Law. Archived from the original on 2007-11-02.
Faculty of Law Calendar 2011-2012 Academic Year.
The United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation do not include the J. Or other professional doctorates among the degrees that are equivalent to research doctorates.
 Among legal degrees, they accord this status only to the Doctor of Juridical Science degree.  In Europe, the European Research Council follows a similar policy, stating that a professional degree carrying the title "doctor" is not considered equivalent to a PhD.  The Dutch and Portuguese National Academic Recognition Information Centres both classify the US J. (along with other professional doctorate degrees) as equivalent to a master's degree,   although the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland states with respect to US practice that "The '. Professional degree' is a
Program Introduction and Dean's Message Archived 2009-09-10 at the Wayback Machine.
The Law Society and the General Council of the Bar.
General Admission Archived 2008-06-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  These were then reinforced with a full ethics opinion that maintained the ban on using the title in legal practice as a form of self-laudation (except when dealing with countries where the use of "Doctor" by lawyers was standard practice), but allowed the use of the title in academia "if the school of graduation thinks of the J.
 These opinions led to further debate.   The introduction of the new Code of Professional Responsibility in 1969 seemed to settle the question – in states where this was adopted – in favour of allowing the use of the title.  There was some dispute over whether only the Ph. -level Doctor of Juridical Science should properly be seen as granting the title,  but ethics opinions made it clear that the new Code allowed J.
-holders to be called "Doctor", while reaffirming that the older Canons did not. 
Students can complete the programme in 3 years. ") Presumably because it did not entirely replace the LL.
For new graduates until 1971, it has not been customary in the U. It was noted in the 1920s, when the title was widely used by people with doctorates (even those that, at the time, were undergraduate qualifications) and others, that the J. Stood out from other doctorates in this respect.  This continues to be the case in general today.
 By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though very specialized in purpose.  With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, and the demand for lawyers grew. 
"LAWYERS ARE DOCTORS, TOO: But There is No Clear Ethics Rule on Whether They May Say So". American Bar Association Journal.
Archived from the original on 2016-09-25. Two notable exceptions are Université de Montréal and Université de Sherbrooke, which both offer a one-year J. Program aimed at Quebec civil law graduates in order to practice law either elsewhere in Canada or in the state of New York.   The Quality Assurance Agency consulted in 2014 on the inclusion of "Juris Doctor" in the UK Framework for Higher Education Qualifications as an exception to the rule that "doctor" should only be used by doctoral degrees.
It was proposed that the Juris Doctor would be an award at bachelor level and would not confer the right to use the title "doctor".   This was not incorporated into the final framework published in 2014. 
Archived from the original on 2011-07-21.
Comparing American and British Legal Education Systems: Lessons for Commonwealth African Law Schools. The JD Programme is formally classified as a taught master's degree programme and it is not customary for JD graduates to use the title "Doctor"
Australian Qualifications Framework Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016.
Archived from the original on 2008-06-26.
Present-day Law Schools in the United States and Canada. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 21.
The Juris Doctor (JD) Programme Archived 2007-12-30 at the Wayback Machine.
Programmes and Courses: Juris Doctor Archived 2007-12-24 at the Wayback Machine. Is known as Laurea Magistrale in Giurisprudenza.  In the Bologna process framework, it's a Master's-level degree.
 It comprises 5 years of coursework and a final dissertation.  Graduates are awarded the title of " dottore magistrale in giurisprudenza" and are qualified to register to any Italian bar in order to fulfil the 18-months training required to sit the qualification examination.  Japan [ edit ]
 Later the requirements were reduced to require only two years of college education.  But a system like the Inns did not develop, and a college education was not required in England until the 19th century, so this system was unique. Generally, universities that offer the JD also offer the LLB, though at some universities, only the JD is offered, and only at postgraduate levels.
Due to recent changes in undergraduate degree structuring, some universities, such as the University of Melbourne,  only allow law to be studied at the postgraduate level, and the JD has completely replaced the LLB.
Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie's Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15.
News Archived 2008-05-31 at the Wayback Machine.
Academic Degree Commission of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2011.
22-23, available at Heinonline (login required); see also "What is the difference between the LL.
B as the Basic Law Degree", Cleveland-Marshall Law Review, Vol. 573–579, quoted in Joanna Lombard, LL.
And the Professional Degree in Architecture Archived 2014-10-14 at the Wayback Machine, Proceedings of the 85th ACSA Annual Meeting, Architecture: Material and Imagined and Technology Conference, 1997. Can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England.
The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was mainly for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law.  The universities only taught civil and canon law (used in a very few jurisdictions such as the courts of admiralty and church courts) but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
 However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. 
Philippine Association of Law Schools.
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 21. The Inns of Court of London served as a professional school for lawyers in England.
The only JD degree currently awarded by a UK university is at Queen's University Belfast. This is a 3–4 year degree specified as being a professional doctorate at the doctoral qualifications level in the UK framework, sitting above the LLM and including a 30,000 word dissertation demonstrating the "creation and interpretation of new knowledge, through original research or other advanced scholarship, of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication" that must be passed in order to gain the degree.  
American Bar Association Journal. Archived from the original on 2013-12-26. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link) York University offered the degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence (D.
) as a research degree until 2002, when the name of the program was changed to Ph.
 China [ edit ]
 Due to an initial distrust of a profession open only to the elite in England, as institutions for training developed in what would become the United States they emerged as quite different from those in England. 
Solicitors Regulation Authority.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-05. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)
Washington University Journal of Law & Policy.
"About Use - The Melbourne JD".
Providers may continue to adopt titles traditionally used for degree and sub-degree qualifications in the mainstream education (i. Associate at Level 4, Bachelor at Level 5, Master at Level 6, and Doctor at Level 7).
Research Doctorate Recipients". InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-08. Under "Data notes" this article mentions that the J.
Archived from the original on 2008-02-16. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown ( link)
An Australian Juris Doctor consists of three years of full-time study, or the equivalent. The course varies across different universities, though all are obliged to teach the Priestley 11 subjects as per the requirements of the state admissions boards in Australia.  JDs are considered equivalent to the LLBs, and still need to fulfill the same requirements practical legal training for admission as a lawyer.
Carnegie's Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15.
Allard School of Law | UBC Board of Governors Approves Request for LL. (Bachelor of Laws) degree to be renamed J.
Archived from the original on 2016-09-20.
Newspapers, including The Times, generally do not use the honorific 'Dr. ' unless the person in question has a medical degree.
Is the JD Programme a doctoral or a master's degree? To become a licensed lawyer, a person must hold the Licenciado en Derecho degree obtainable by four to five years of academic study and final examination. After these undergraduate studies it is possible to obtain a Maestría degree, equivalent to a master's degree. This degree requires two to three years of academic studies.
Finally, one can study for an additional three years to obtain the Doctor en Derecho degree, which is a research degree at doctoral level.  Since most universities and law schools must have approval from the ministry of education (Secretaría de Educación Pública) through the general office of professions (Direccion General de Profesiones) all of the academic programs are similar throughout the country in public and private law schools.
Archived from the original on 2011-08-28. The clerkship program required much individual study and the mentoring lawyer was expected to carefully select materials for study and guide the clerk in his study of the law and ensure that it was being absorbed.
 The student was supposed to compile his notes of his reading of the law into a " commonplace book", which he would try to memorize.  Although those were the ideals, in reality the clerks were often overworked and rarely were able to study the law individually as expected. They were often employed to tedious tasks, such as making handwritten copies of documents.
Finding sufficient legal texts was also a seriously debilitating issue, and there was no standardization in the books assigned to the clerk trainees because they were assigned by their mentor, whose opinion of the law may have differed greatly from his peers.  It was said by one famous attorney in the U.
, William Livingston, in 1745 in a New York newspaper that the clerkship program was severely flawed, and that most mentors "have no manner of concern for their clerk's future welfare.
[T]is a monstrous absurdity to suppose, that the law is to be learnt by a perpetual copying of precedents. "  There were some few mentors that were dedicated to the service, and because of their rarity, they became so sought after that the first law schools evolved from the offices of some of these attorneys who took on many clerks and began to spend more time training than practicing law.
The Chinese University of Hong Kong. JD Programme Structure Archived 2008-07-03 at the Wayback Machine. Academic Programmes: Juris Doctor Archived 2008-04-13 at the Wayback Machine.
Singapore [ edit ]
These award titles will continue to be recognised under QF although they do not conform to ATS:
CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)
If the public might be left with the impression that the lawyer is a doctor of medicine).  There has been discussion on whether it is permissible in some other limited instances. For example, in June 2006, the Florida Bar Board of Governors ruled that a lawyer could refer to himself as a "doctor en leyes" (doctor in laws) in a Spanish-language advertisement, reversing an earlier decision.
 The decision was reversed again in July 2006, when the board voted to only allow the names of degrees to appear in the language used on the diploma, without translation. 
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-10. Comment [s4]: Footnote as follows will need to be added depending on decision re the JD:
2(2)) , Ministry of Law (Singapore), Retrieved 14 February 2014.
Over the same period, American law schools became more scholarly and less professionally oriented, so that in 1996 Langbein could write: "That contrast between English law schools as temples of scholarship and American law schools as training centers for the profession no longer bears the remotest relation to reality. "  Legal training in colonial North America and 19th-century U.
[ edit ]
An International Prognostic Study, Based on an Acquisition Model, of Degree Philosophiae Doctor (Ph.
Notes and references [ edit ] In the Philippines, the J. Exists alongside the more common LL. B, it requires four years of study, is considered a graduate degree and requires prior undergraduate study as a prerequisite for admission, and covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations. Requires students to finish the core bar subjects in just 2½ years; take elective courses (such as legal theory, philosophy, and sometimes even theology); undergo an apprenticeship; and write and defend a thesis. " designation by Canadian law schools is not intended to indicate an emphasis on American law, but rather to distinguish Canadian law degrees from English law degrees, which do not require prior undergraduate study.
Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts  do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically.   This is equivalent to the manner in which United States J.
Graduates are treated in Canadian jurisdictions such as Ontario.  To prepare graduates to practise in jurisdictions on both sides of the border, some pairs of law schools have developed joint Canadian-American J. As of 2018, these include a three-year program conducted concurrently at the University of Windsor and the University of Detroit Mercy,  as well as a four-year program with the University of Ottawa and either Michigan State University or American University in which students spend two years studying on each side of the border.  Previously, New York University (NYU) Law School and Osgoode Hall Law School offered a similar program, but this has since been terminated.
Archived from the original on 2010-12-02. The Inns of Court continued but became less effective, and admission to the bar still did not require any significant educational activity or examination.
In 1846, Parliament examined the education and training of prospective barristers and found the system to be inferior to that of Europe and the United States as Britain did not regulate the admission of barristers.  Therefore, formal schools of law were called for, but not finally established until later in the century, and even then the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions.  The degree was first conferred in the Philippines by the Ateneo de Manila Law School, which first developed the model program later adopted by most schools now offering the J. After the Ateneo, schools such as the University of Batangas College of Law, University of St.
La Salle - College of Law, and the De La Salle Lipa College of Law  began offering the J. , with schools such as the Far Eastern University Institute of Law offering with De La Salle University's Ramon V.
Del Rosario College of Business for the country's first J.
 In 2008, the University of the Philippines College of Law began conferring the J. On its graduates, the school choosing rename its LL.
Because to accurately reflect the nature of education the university provides as "nomenclature does not accurately reflect the fact that the LL. Is a professional as well as a post baccalaureate degree.
"  In 2009, the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM) and the Silliman University College of Law also shifted their respective LL. B Programs to Juris Doctor -applying the change to incoming freshmen students for School Year 2009–2010.   The newly established De La Salle University College of Law is likewise offering the J. , although it will offer the program using a trimestral calendar, unlike the model curriculum that uses a semestral calendar.
 The primary law degree in the P. In the fall of 2008 the Shenzhen campus of Peking University started the School of Transnational Law, which offers a U.
-style education and awards both a Chinese master's degree and, by special authorization of the government, a J.  Hong Kong [ edit ]
"Views of our Readers - Editor's Note". American Bar Association Journal.
Today, Ministry of Law (Singapore), Retrieved 14 February 2014.
 In 2011, Mother Jones published an article claiming that Michele Bachmann was misrepresenting her qualifications by using the "bogus" title Dr.
They later amended the article to note that the use of the title by lawyers "is a (begrudgingly) accepted practice in some states and not in others", although they maintained that it was rarely used as it "suggests that you're a medical doctor or a Ph. —and therefore conveys a false level of expertise".
 See also [ edit ]
"Revisting the "Doctor" Debate". American Bar Association Journal. Archived from the original on 2010-09-14. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)
Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-10. As a professional doctorate, the Juris Doctor is the degree that prepares the recipient to enter the law profession (as do the M.
In the medical profession and the D. Is the sole degree necessary to become a professor of law or to obtain a license to practice law, it (like the M.
 Research degrees in the study of law include the Master of Laws (LL. ), which ordinarily requires the J. As a prerequisite,  and the Doctor of Juridical Science (S. ), which ordinarily requires the LL.  However, the American Bar Association has issued a Council Statement,  advising law schools that the J.
Should be considered equivalent to the Ph. For educational employment purposes.
Accordingly, while most law professors are required to conduct original writing and research in order to be awarded tenure, the majority have a J.
Research in 2015 showed an increasing trend toward hiring professors with both J. Degrees, particularly at more highly ranked schools.
Mwenda criticized the Council's statement, pointing out that it compares the J. Only to the taught component of the US Ph. , ignoring the research and dissertation components. 
"Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs". Archived from the original on 2008-04-22.
"General Catalog – Graduate Education – Graduate Degrees and Certificates". Archived from the original on 2008-05-21.
New York State Bar Association Journal. New York State Bar Association.
Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2008. Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.
CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link)
The Harvard graduates' magazine. Harvard Graduates' Magazine Association. Both the University of Southampton and the University of Surrey offer two-year graduate-entry LLBs described as "JD Pathway" degrees, which are aimed primarily at Canadian students.
  In academia [ edit ]
Archived from the original on 7 July 2011.
American Law School Degrees, Michigan Law Review, Vol.
Archived from the original on 2016-09-20. The 1728 act was amended in 1821 to reduce the period of the required apprenticeship to three years for graduates in either Law or Arts from Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, as "the admission of such graduates should be facilitated, in consideration of the learning and abilities requisite for taking such degree".
 This was extended in 1837 to cover the newly established universities of Durham and London,  and again in 1851 to include the new Queen's University of Ireland. 
"How to Address an Attorney or Lawyer In the United States". On the Australian Qualifications Framework, the Juris Doctor is classified as a "Masters degree (Extended)", with an exception having been granted to use the title Juris Doctor (other such exceptions include Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dentistry and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine).
It may not be described as a doctoral degree, and holders may not use the title "Doctor". Along with other extended master's degrees, the JD takes 3–4 years following a minimum of a 3-year bachelor's degree.   Canada [ edit ]
Archived from the original on June 10, 2008.
Admissions FAQ  Archived 2012-05-28 at the Wayback Machine.
Department of Education (2008).
Education - Graduate/Post Education Levels". Archived from the original on 2007-12-14.
Pressing Problems in the Law, Volume 2: What are Law Schools For?. Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie's Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15.
Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, and included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law (the two 'Laws' in the original Bachelor of Laws, which thus became the Bachelor of Civil Law when the study of canon law was barred after the Reformation) and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only. The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged, structured and governed by the same rules as the apprenticeship programs for the trades.  The training of solicitors by a five-year apprenticeship was formally established by the Attorneys and Solicitors Act 1728,.
 William Blackstone became the first lecturer in English common law at the University of Oxford in 1753, but the university did not establish the program for the purpose of professional study, and the lectures were very philosophical and theoretical in nature.  Blackstone insisted that the study of law should be university based, where concentration on foundational principles can be had, instead of concentration on detail and procedure had through apprenticeship and the Inns of Court. 
Archived from the original on 2009-07-08. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link) * Juris Doctor (JD) at QF Level 6 first degree, not a graduate degree even though it incorporates the word 'doctor' in the title"  and Commonwealth countries also often consider the US J. Equivalent to a bachelor's degree. Citizenship and Immigration Services has advised that while the J.
Is likely not equivalent to a Ph. , it is "equivalent to, if not higher than, a master's degree".
 Use of the title "Doctor" [ edit ]
The degree is known as the 法律博士 in Chinese, and in Cantonese it is pronounced Faat Leot Bok Si.
In Hong Kong is almost identical to the LL. And is reserved for graduates of non-law disciplines, but the J. Is considered to be a graduate-level degree and requires a thesis or dissertation. There is much scholarly content in the required coursework. Although the universities offering the degree claim that the J. Is a two-year program, completing the degree in two years would require study during the summer term.  The JD is, despite its title, considered to be a master's degree by the universities that offer it in Hong Kong,    and it is positioned at master's level in the Hong Kong Qualifications Framework. Provides the education sufficient for a license to practice, as graduates of both are also required to undertake the PCLL course and a solicitor traineeship or a barrister pupillage.  Italy [ edit ]