What is CP in education?
. Mindweave: Communication, Computers and Distance Education.
 Digital divide [ edit ]
It encompasses several potential applications, which may be teacher or student-oriented, including educational assessment throughout the continuum of learning, such as computerized classification testing, computerized adaptive testing, student testing, and grading an exam. E-Marking is an examiner led activity closely related to other e-assessment activities such as e-testing, or e-learning which are student-led. E-marking allows markers to mark a scanned script or online response on a computer screen rather than on paper. "The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring". The University of Chicago Press. "Ludic Epistemology: What Game-Based Learning Can Teach Curriculum Studies". Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies.
"Cognitive Load Theory, Educational Research, and Instructional Design: Some Food for Thought". Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences: 38.
Cognitivism [ edit ]
Cognitive science underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s to the point that some described the period as a "cognitive revolution" particularly in reaction to behaviorism.  While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorism, cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. It refers to learning as "all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used" by the human mind.
  The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short-term memory) and long-term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science.
Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load, information processing, and media psychology. These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design.
"Special delivery: an analysis of mHealth in maternal and newborn health programs and their outcomes around the world". Maternal and Child Health Journal. The Impact of E-Learning: Bruck, P. E-Content: Technologies and Perspectives for the European Market. 79–96
"La educación en línea, una industria preparada para recibir 107 billones de dolares en 2015".
"Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept". "First Public Beta of SlideWiki.
Social relationships are important but high-tech environments may compromise the balance of trust, care and respect between teacher and student.  The use of educational apps generally has a positive effect on learning. Pre- and post- tests reveal that the use of apps on mobile devices reduces the achievement gap between struggling and average students.
 Some educational apps improve group work by allowing students to receive feedback on answers and promoting collaboration in solving problems, examples of these apps can be found in the third paragraph. The benefits of app-assisted learning have been exhibited in all age groups. Kindergarten students that use iPads show much higher rates of literacy than non-users.
Medical students at University of California Irvine that utilized iPad academically have been reported to score 23% higher on national exams than
Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc. Government and public [ edit ]
London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley, 2003
Definition, framework and research issues of smart learning environments-a context-aware ubiquitous learning perspective. Smart Learning Environments, 1(1), 1-14. Massively open online courses (MOOCs), although quite popular in discussions of technology and education in developed countries (more so in the US), are not a major concern in most developing or low-income countries.
One of the stated goals of MOOCs is to provide less fortunate populations (i. , in developing countries) an opportunity to experience courses with US-style content and structure.
However, research shows only 3% of the registrants are from low-income countries and although many courses have thousands of registered students only 5-10% of them complete the course.  MOOCs also implies that certain curriculum and teaching methods are superior and this could eventually wash over (or possibly washing out) local educational institutions, cultural norms and educational traditions. 
Archived from the original on 2013-07-06.
Realising the full potential of e-learning for education and training. Archived from the original on 22 March 2013.
How people learn: Brain, mind, experience. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. The importance of self-assessment through tools made available on Educational Technology platforms has been growing. Self-assessment in education technology relies on students analyzing their strengths, weaknesses and areas where improvement is possible to set realistic goals in learning, improve their educational performances and track their progress.
  One of the unique tools for self-assessment made possible by education technology is Analytics. Analytics is data gathered on the student's activities on the learning platform, drawn into meaningful patterns that lead to a valid conclusion, usually through the medium of data visualization such as graphs. Learning analytics is the field that focuses on analyzing and reporting data about student's activities in order to facilitate learning.
"Technology in today's classroom: Are you a tech-savvy teacher?".
"The science of learning and the art of teaching".
 Analytics [ edit ]
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. Expenditure [ edit ]
Technopoly: the surrender of culture to technology.
"Getting at-risk teens to graduation". "Five Challenges and Solutions in Online Music Teacher Education".
Research and Issues in Music Education.
"HarvardX and MITx: The first year of open online courses". HarvardX and MITx Working Paper No.
Book Ends: The Changing Media Environment of American Classrooms. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc.
"Crowd Learn: Crowd sourcing the Creation of Highly-structured E-Learning Content". 5th International Conference on Computer Supported Education CSEDU 2013. This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century based on animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C. Many psychologists used these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behaviorism as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments.
Since behaviorism consists of the view of teaching people how to do something with rewards and punishments, it is related to training people. 
Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research.
Wikiversity has learning resources about Teaching and Learning Online
"Evaluating the Virtual Classroom".
) Online Education: Perspectives on a New Environment. Confusing terminologies: #e-learning, learning technologist, educational technologist,…discussed by @A_L_T members. Uk/fawei/2014/07/29/confusing-terminologies-e-learning-learning-technologist-educational-technologistdiscussed-by-a_l_t-members/
"Recent Meta-reviews and Meta–analyses of AIED Systems". International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.
Pdf Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
Journal of Accounting Education. "Modeling and understanding students' off-task behavior in intelligent tutoring systems".
Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI '07. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 1059. Technology Matters: Questions to Live With.
Archived from the original on February 15, 2015.
Technology, e-Learning and Distance Education. Org/resources/topics/technology-and-media/preschoolers-and-kindergartner[Article Title NAEYC] Over-stimulation [ edit ]
Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning LLC. ; Gong, Yue (2013), "Wheel-Spinning: Students Who Fail to Master a Skill", Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 1007/978-3-642-39112-5_44, ISBN 9783642391118
"The Science of Making Decisions".
There is an important need for recent, reliable, and high-quality health information to be made available to the public as well as in summarized form for public health providers.  Providers have indicated the need for automatic notification of the latest research, a single searchable portal of information, and access to grey literature.  The Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Library is funded by the U. Maternal and Child Health Bureau to screen the latest research and develop automatic notifications to providers through the MCH Alert. Another application in public health is the development of mHealth (use of mobile telecommunication and multimedia into global public health).
MHealth has been used to promote prenatal and newborn services, with positive outcomes. In addition, "Health systems have implemented mHealth programs to facilitate emergency medical responses, point-of-care support, health promotion and data collection. "  Students appreciate the convenience of e-learning, but report greater engagement in face-to-face learning environments.
 Colleges and universities are working towards combating this issue by utilizing WEB 2. 0 technologies as well as incorporating more mentorships between students and faculty members. 
Com/academy/lesson/technology-in-the-preschool-classroom. Html[Article Study]
0 Practices: Study on the Impact of Web 2. 0 Innovations on Education and Training in Europe". JRC Scientific and Technical Report (EUR 23664 EN , – 2009).
The worry is we're raising a generation of kids in front of screens whose brains are going to be wired differently. "  Students have always faced distractions; computers and cellphones are a particular challenge because the stream of data can interfere with focusing and learning. Although these technologies affect adults too, young people may be more influenced by it as their developing brains can easily become habituated to switching tasks and become unaccustomed to sustaining attention.
 Too much information, coming too rapidly, can overwhelm thinking. 
"Evaluating Video Models of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices to Enhance Teacher Learning". Teacher Education and Special Education. With the Internet and social media, using educational apps makes the students highly susceptible to distraction and sidetracking.
Even though proper use has shown to increase student performances, being distracted would be detrimental. Another disadvantage is increased potential for cheating. Smartphones can be very easy to hide and use inconspicuously, especially if their use is normalized in the classroom.
These disadvantages can be managed with strict rules and regulations on mobile phone use.
"Labels do matter! A critique of AECT's redefinition of the field".
"Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Integration Reframed" (PDF). Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Modern educational technology can improve access to education,  including full degree programs.  It enables better integration for non-full-time students, particularly in continuing education,   and improved interactions between students and instructors.
 Learning material can be used for long distance learning and are accessible to a wider audience.   Course materials are easy to access.
3% of American family households had access to the internet.  In 2013, according to Canadian Radio Television and Telecommunications Commission Canada, 79% of homes have access to the internet.  Students can access and engage with numerous online resources at home.
Using online resources can help students spend more time on specific aspects of what they may be learning in school, but at home. Schools like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have made certain course materials free online.  Although some aspects of a classroom setting are missed by using these resources, they are helpful tools to add additional support to the educational system.
The necessity to pay for transport to the educational facility is removed.
0 Technologies and Web Applications in Higher Education (2013) Jean-Eric Pelet IGI Global ISBN 978-1466648760
There are two separate schools of cognitivism and these are the cognitivist and social cognitivist. The former focuses on the understanding of the thinking or cognitive processes of an individual while the latter includes social processes as influences in learning besides cognition.  These two schools, however, share the view that learning is more than a behavioral change but as a mental process used by the learner.
 Constructivism [ edit ] Summative assessments are more common in classrooms and are usually set up to be more easily graded, as they take the form of tests or projects with specific grading schemes. One huge benefit to tech-based testing is the option to give students immediate feedback on their answers. When students get these responses, they are able to know how they are doing in the class which can help push them to improve or give them confidence that they are doing well.
 Technology also allows for different kinds of summative assessment, such as digital presentations, videos, or anything else the teacher/students may come up with, which allows different learners to show what they learned more effectively.  Teachers can also use technology to post graded assessments online for students to have a better idea of what a good project is.
2014 International Conference on Web and Open Access to Learning (ICWOAL).
, "technology does not guarantee effective learning" and inappropriate use of technology can even hinder it.  A University of Washington study of infant vocabulary shows that it is slipping due to educational baby DVDs. Published in the Journal of Pediatrics, a 2007 University of Washington study on the vocabulary of babies surveyed over 1,000 parents in Washington and Minnesota.
The study found that for every one hour that babies 8–16 months of age watched DVDs and Videos they knew 6-8 fewer of 90 common baby words than the babies that did not watch them. Andrew Meltzoff, a surveyor in this study states that the result makes sense, that if the baby's "alert time" is spent in front of DVDs and TV, instead of with people speaking, the babies are not going to get the same linguistic experience.
Dimitri Chistakis, another surveyor reported that the evidence is mounting that baby DVDs are of no value and may be harmful.    
Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. "Reflections on the 2008 AECT Definitions of the Field".
The five key sectors of the e-learning industry are consulting, content, technologies, services and support.  Worldwide, e-learning was estimated in 2000 to be over $48 billion according to conservative estimates.  Commercial growth has been brisk.
  In 2014, the worldwide commercial market activity was estimated at $6 billion venture capital over the past five years,  : 38 with self-paced learning generating $35.  : 4 North American e-learning generated $23.
3 billion in revenue in 2013, with a 9% growth rate in cloud-based authoring tools and learning platforms.  : 19 Careers [ edit ]
"Using instructional technologies to enhance teaching and learning for the 21st century pre K-12 students: The case of a professional education programs unit". International Journal of Instructional Media.
Ofqual reports that e-marking is the main type of marking used for general qualifications in the United Kingdom.
ELearning and the Science of Instruction. ISBN 978-0787986834
Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.
"Conceptualizing the emerging field of smart learning environments". Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology.
E-learning theory examines these approaches. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. When adopting new technologies, there may be one best chance to "get it right. 32) points out a good example of a (bad) choice that has become strongly fixed in social habit and material equipment: our "choice" to use the QWERTY keyboard.  The QWERTY arrangement of letters on the keyboard was originally chosen, not because it was the most efficient for typing, but because early typewriters were prone to jam when adjacent keys were struck in quick succession.
Now that typing has become a digital process, this is no longer an issue, but the QWERTY arrangement lives on as a social habit, one that is very difficult to change.
Seventy-nine percent said they had employed a candidate with an online degree in the past 12 months. However, 66% said candidates who get degrees online were not seen as positively as a job applicant with traditional degrees. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of verbal behavior   and wrote "The Technology of Teaching",   an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, named Celeration, that was based on behavior analysis but that substantially differed from Keller's and Skinner's models.
In low and middle income countries, mHealth is most frequently used as one-way text messages or phone reminders to promote treatment adherence and gather data.  Benefits [ edit ]
Journal of Science and Technology.
Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI EA '16. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 2334–2340.
1007/978-3-319-93843-1_12, ISBN 9783319938424
Companies with spread out distribution chains use e-learning for delivering information about the latest product developments. Most of corporate e-learning is asynchronous and delivered and managed via learning management systems.  The big challenge in corporate e-learning is to engage the staff, especially on compliance topics for which periodic staff training is mandated by the law or regulations. "Troubles with information overload—Moving from quantity to quality in information provision". International Journal of Information Management.
Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. Unbound By Place or Time: Museums and Online Learning.
Washington, DC: American Association of Museums, 9–10.
Langdon Winner makes a similar point by arguing that the underdevelopment of the philosophy of technology leaves us with an overly simplistic reduction in our discourse to the supposedly dichotomous notions of the "making" versus the "uses" of new technologies, and that a narrow focus on "use" leads us to believe that all technologies are neutral in moral standing.  : ix–39 These critiques would have us ask not, "How do we maximize the role or advancement of technology in education?", but, rather, "What are the social and human consequences of adopting any particular technology?"
"An EPSS Case Study: Prime Computer". Handout given at the Electronic Performance Support Conference, Atlanta, GA, 1992. According to Lai, "the learning environment is a complex system where the interplay and interactions of many things impact the outcome of learning.
"  When technology is brought into an educational setting, the pedagogical setting changes in that technology-driven teaching can change the entire meaning of an activity without adequate research validation. If technology monopolizes an activity, students can begin to develop the sense that "life would scarcely be thinkable without technology. "A retrospective on twenty years of education technology policy". Journal of Educational Computing Research. Com/the-10-best-iphoneipad-apps-for-preschoolers[Article Title Top 10 Educational Apps for Preschoolers]
"Effectiveness of cyber charter schools: A review of research on learnings". According to James Kulik, who studies the effectiveness of computers used for instruction, students usually learn more in less time when receiving computer-based instruction and they like classes more and develop more positive attitudes toward computers in computer-based classes.
Students can independently solve problems.  There are no intrinsic age-based restrictions on difficulty level, i.
Students can go at their own pace. Students editing their written work on word processors improve the quality of their writing. According to some studies, the students are better at critiquing and editing written work that is exchanged over a computer network with students they know.
 Studies completed in "computer intensive" settings found increases in student-centric, cooperative and higher order learning, writing skills, problem solving, and using technology.  In addition, attitudes toward technology as a learning tool by parents, students and teachers are also improved. Org/blog/ece-technology-10-trending-tools-for-teachers[Article Title ECE Technology: 10 Trending Tools for Teachers
Journal of Science Education and Technology.
Archived from the original on 2016-04-02.
1038/scientificamericanmind1008-42. "Accommodating the newfound strategic importance of educational technologists within higher education: A critical literature review".
Campus-Wide Information Systems.
The evolution of American educational technology. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
"Affective states and state tests". Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge - LAK '13. New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 117.
"Choosing media for children checklist" (PDF). San Francisco: Kids Watch Monthly.
User Modelling and User-Adapted Interaction.
"For Frustrated Gifted Kids, A World of Online Opportunities".
Examples include silent film, broadcast radio, and television, none of which have maintained much of a foothold in the daily practices of mainstream, formal education.  Technology, in and of itself, does not necessarily result in fundamental improvements to educational practice.  The focus needs to be on the learner's interaction with technology—not the technology itself.
It needs to be recognized as "ecological" rather than "additive" or "subtractive". In this ecological change, one significant change will create total change.  Formative assessment is more difficult, as the perfect form is ongoing and allows the students to show their learning in different ways depending on their learning styles.
Technology has helped some teachers make their formative assessments better, particularly through the use of classroom response systems (CRS).  A CRS is a tool in which the students each have a handheld device that partners up with the teacher's computer. The instructor then asks multiple choice or true or false questions and the students answer on their device.
 Depending on the software used, the answers may then be shown on a graph so students and teacher can see the percentage of students who gave each answer and the teacher can focus on what went wrong. Communication from the Commission: E-Learning – Designing "Tejas at Niit" tomorrow's education.
Brussels: European Commission
"Virtual Education System (Current Myth & Future Reality in Pakistan)". ; Ramsay, Judith (September 2012).
"The five central psychological challenges facing effective mobile learning". British Journal of Educational Technology.
What we need to consider about the computer has nothing to do with its efficiency as a teaching tool. We need to know in what ways it is altering our conception of learning, and how in conjunction with television, it undermines the old idea of school.
Using Technology To Create A Dynamic Classroom Experience. Journal of College Teaching & Learning (TLC), 9(2), 121-128. Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism: individual (or psychological) constructivism, such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, and social constructivism.
This form of constructivism has a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners who bring different perspectives. Constructivist learning environments require students to use their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning (Termos, 2012 ). Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge.
Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may incorporate learner centered problem-based learning, project-based learning, and inquiry-based learning, ideally involving real-world scenarios, in which students are actively engaged in critical thinking activities.
An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the 1980s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning.  : 224 LOGO, a programming language, embodied an attempt to integrate Piagetan ideas with computers and technology.   Initially there were broad, hopeful claims, including "perhaps the most controversial claim" that it would "improve general problem-solving skills" across disciplines.
 : 238 However, LOGO programming skills did not consistently yield cognitive benefits.  : 238 It was "not as concrete" as advocates claimed, it privileged "one form of reasoning over all others," and it was difficult to apply the thinking activity to non- LOGO-based activities.  By the late 1980s, LOGO and other similar programming languages had lost their novelty and dominance and were gradually de-emphasized amid criticisms.
 Educational assessment with technology may be either formative assessment or summative assessment. Instructors use both types of assessment to understand student progress and learning in the classroom. Technology has helped teachers create better assessments to help understand where students who are having trouble with the material are having issues.
Neil Postman endorsed the notion that technology impacts human cultures, including the culture of classrooms, and that this is a consideration even more important than considering the efficiency of a new technology as a tool for teaching.  Regarding the computer's impact on education, Postman writes (p. 19):
"Computer-managed instruction: an alternative teaching strategy".
"Are Schools Getting a Big Enough Bang for Their Education Technology Buck?" (PDF).
"Have Technology and Multitasking Rewired How Students Learn?".
There are two distinct issues of assessment: the assessment of educational technology   and assessment with technology. 
New York, New York, USA: ACM Press: 79–88. "High-Tech Schools and Low-Tech Teaching". Journal of Computing in Teacher Education.
School-issued devices and student privacy, 13 April 2017, Executive summary.
By far the greatest latitude of choice exists the very first time a particular instrument, system, or technique is introduced. Because choices tend to become strongly fixed in material equipment, economic investment, and social habit, the original flexibility vanishes for all practical purposes once the initial commitments are made. In that sense, technological innovations are similar to legislative acts or political foundings that establish a framework for public order that will endure over many generations. 29)
"Dialogue and the construction of knowledge in e-learning: Exploring students' perceptions of their learning while using Blackboard's asynchronous discussion board". European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning.
Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
0 Matters: An Analysis of Implementing Web 2. Information Systems Education Journal. Assessments of educational technology have included the Follow Through project. Effective technology use deploys multiple evidence-based strategies concurrently (e. Adaptive content, frequent testing, immediate feedback, etc.
 Using computers or other forms of technology can give students practice on core content and skills while the teacher can work with others, conduct assessments, or perform other tasks.   Through the use of educational technology, education is able to be individualized for each student allowing for better differentiation and allowing students to work for mastery at their own pace. 
"Evolution Is not enough: Revolutionizing Current Learning Environments to Smart Learning Environments". International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.
Archived from the original on 2013-10-23.
"Social software: E-learning beyond learning management systems". Globally, factors like change management, technology obsolescence and vendor- developer partnership are major restraints that are hindering the growth of Educational technology market.
The Internet and Higher Education. Technopoly: the surrender of culture to technology.
External links [ edit ] Behaviorism [ edit ]
"iStimulation: Apple iPad Use with Ch". Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. Technology is "rapidly and profoundly altering our brains.
"  High exposure levels stimulate brain cell alteration and release neurotransmitters, which causes the strengthening of some neural pathways and weakening of others. This leads to heightened stress levels on the brain that, at first, boost energy levels, but, over time, actually augment memory, impair cognition, lead to depression, alter the neural circuitry of the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. These are the brain regions that control mood and thought.
If unchecked, the underlying structure of the brain could be altered.   Over-stimulation due to technology may begin too young. When children are exposed before the age of seven, important developmental tasks may be delayed, and bad learning habits might develop, which "deprives children of the exploration and play that they need to develop.
"  Media psychology is an emerging specialty field that embraces electronic devices and the sensory behaviors occurring from the use of educational technology in learning.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( March 2019) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message)
However, as of 2013 [update], none were looking at technology return on investment (ROI) to connect expenditures on technology with improved student outcomes.
Mindstorms: Children computers and powerful ideas (PDF). Winner viewed technology as a "form of life" that not only aids human activity, but that also represents a powerful force in reshaping that activity and its meaning.
 : ix–39 For example, the use of robots in the industrial workplace may increase productivity, but they also radically change the process of production itself, thereby redefining what is meant by "work" in such a setting. In education, standardized testing has arguably redefined the notions of learning and assessment. We rarely explicitly reflect on how strange a notion it is that a number between, say, 0 and 100 could accurately reflect a person's knowledge about the world.
According to Winner, the recurring patterns in everyday life tend to become an unconscious process that we learn to take for granted. Winner writes,
From Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology. Retrieved October 25, 2012, from http://projects. Learning Networks: A Field Guide to Teaching and Learning Online.
  Practice [ edit ] Main articles: Educational psychology, E-learning (theory), Learning theory (education), and Educational philosophies
[ page needed]
Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Training Development Excellence Essentials.
"Does the Digital Divide Matter More? Comparing the Effects of New Media and Old Media Use on the Education-Based Knowledge Gap". Mass Communication and Society.
"Designing support to facilitate learning in powerful electronic learning environments".